Inter-Dimensional Hypothesis.

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 “We are dealing with a multidimensional paraphysical phenomenon which is largely indigenous to planet earth”.
The Inter-dimensional Hypothesis (IDH) is an alternative theory to the extra-terrestrial hypothesis (ETH) It seeks to explain the origins of mysterious UFO spacecraft and visitations from other separate realities or dimensions that coexist separately alongside our own. The idea encompasses existentialism as well as quantum physics and parallel universes. 
Albert Einstein spoke of theories supporting inter-dimensionalism to the degree that the cosmos could contain many versions of “you” and many of “me”, and both of us might not be contained in all of them. This idea of other realities and inter-dimensions is also advanced by renowned ufologist Jacques Vallée.
Some UFO proponents accepted the Inter-Dimensional Hypothesis (IDH) because interstellar  distances between the stars would make  travel impractical using conventional means. and nobody had demonstrated an antigravity or faster-than-light travel hypothesis that could explain extra-terrestrial machines. The IDH eliminates the  necessity  to explain any propulsion method because it holds that UFOs are not spacecraft, but rather devices that travel between different realities.

Inter-Dimensional Entities.


Frequency & Harmonics. By Preston Cash 
‘Imagine that we are all radio receivers,  (I believe that we all broadcast as well.), and I am tuned to a certain wavelength of energy.  Everything that I imagine to be real (existentialism) is vibrating relative to that frequency.  For the sake of argument let’s say that my frequency is the 20-meter radio band.  My brain contains the antenna, tuner, mixer, and oscillator.  It’s the “front end” of my radio and allows me to experience everything in the format of that frequency, or rate of vibration.  I won’t experience anything in the 10-meter band because I’m not vibrating in that frequency and my “tuner” won’t pick it up.  People, places, and things in the 10-meter band may be real and solid for them, but invisible to me.
Now it begins to really get interesting.  In theory, (quantum physics), several different realities can occupy the same space, and you and I wouldn’t even experience a ripple.  For reasons unknown, people do catch glimpses of other scenes and people from other dimensions.  Among yogis and mystics, the “Jeweled Tower” is one, (as mentioned in the book “Poetic Vision”.)  The people may be called ghosts, spirit guides, etc.  They may enter our dimension, frequency, vibration, wavelength, or reality.  Since our personal “radio receivers” may be tuned differently, two people may be in the same room, seated together, yet one sees the vision or ghost, while the other does not.
I think it entirely possible that alien aircraft may be subject to the same conditions.  This would explain how they could appear, disappear, and re-appear at will…..’
M theory and “Branes” is a cosmological theory that proposes 11 dimensions exist throughout our known universe or “membrane”, from which the term “Brane” is derived.
Membranes are multidimensional objects also called p-branes referring to the spatial dimensionality (p) of a particular brane, such that a 1 dimensional string would be a 1-brane and a 2 dimensional surface would be aMultiverse 2-brane. Resulting from M-theory equations, they are membrane-like structures consisting of from 1-11 dimensions. The idea is that these branes exists in an 11-dimensional space, and that they contain universes. According to this model our universe is a 3-brane. This 11-dimensional space is called the “bulk” in Brane cosmology.
Each of these branes is its own universe and could have different laws. Furthermore these parallel universes could be closer than your computer screen, but in directions we can not perceive. Also, since they are outside the space-time of our universe, they would have a time all their own. The Bulk could even have its own distinct time or no time at all.
It has been theorised that interactions could occur between branes coming into contact with each other. In fact collisions between branes have been proposed as a possible cause for the Big Bang proposed by Evolutionists as the beginning of the universe, however this is speculative and not a requirement of M-theory’.
If there is any veracity to the idea that several different realities occupy the same space and can bleed over into one another  this could possibly account for the frequent reports of ghostly visions, sightings of cryptids (animals whose existence or survival is disputed or unsubstantiated, such as the yeti.), demons, angels, UFOs and their occupants, and various other paranormally related “high strangeness” phenomena.

High Strangeness Case:

 The Case of Indrid Cold.
John KeelIn the aftermath of the Mothman sightings case in Point Pleasant, West Virginia, (a case of high strangeness in itself), John Keel, the author of ‘The Mothman Prophecies,’  met and interviewed a man named Woodrow Derenberger who related the following story to him. 
At 7 P.M. on November 2, 1966, he was heading home in his panel truck after a long, hard day on the road. The weather was sour, chill, and rainy. As he drove up a long hill outside of Parkersburg on Interstate 77 a sudden crash sounded in the back of his truck. He snapped on his interior lights and looked back. A sewing machine had fallen off the top of a stereo, but there didn’t seem to be any real damage.
A car swept up behind him and passed him. Another vehicle seemed to be following it. He eased his foot on the accelerator. He had been speeding slightly and thought it might be a police car. The vehicle, a black blob in the dark, drew alongside him, cut in front, and slowed.
Woody Derenberger gaped in amazement at the thing. It wasn’t an automobile but was shaped like, “an old-fashioned kerosene lamp chimney, flaring at both ends, narrowing down to a small neck and then enlarging in a great bulge in the centre.”
A door slid open on the side of the thing and a man stepped out. The stranger was about five feet ten inches tall with long, dark hair combed straight back. His skin was heavily tanned. Grinning broadly, his arms crossed and his hands tucked under his armpits, he walked to the panel truck. He was wearing a dark topcoat.
Underneath it Woody could see some kind of garment made of glistening greenish material almost metallic in appearance. “Do not be afraid.” The grinning man did not speak aloud. Woody sensed the words. “We mean you no harm. I come from a country much less powerful than yours.” He asked for Woody’s name. Woody told him. The stranger then replied, “My name is Cold. I sleep, breathe, and bleed even as you do.”
Cold told Woody to report the encounter to the authorities, promising to come forward at a later date to confirm it. After a few minutes of aimless generalities, Cold announced he would meet Woody again soon. The object descended, the door opened, Cold entered it, and it rose quickly and silently into the night.
The story of Indrid Cold does not end there, however. Keel mentions that a number of times while investigating the Point Pleasant area he received phone calls from mysterious persons claiming to be “Indrid Cold”. Of course Keel was no stranger to mysterious and bizarre phone calls, as many portions of his books dealt with his seeming “harassment” by some informed third-party. This concept is captured in the 2002 Richard Gere film, The Mothman Prophecies, where Gere played a ‘John Klein’.
In The Complete Guide to Mysterious Beings, which has been republished making it easier to come by, Keel discusses the idea of the “Grinning Man”. Within this category he includes the figure of Indrid Cold. Keel also tells another story of a similar type of entity which two young kids encountered. Keel writes:
‘A blazing white light “as big as a car” nearly scraped the 550-foot-tall television tower outside of Pompton Lakes, New Jersey, site of the large DuPont explosives factory, on the night of October 11, 1966. A policeman and his wife watched the object move slowly northward and disappear beyond the neighboring hills.
On the other side of those hills. Sergeant Benjamin Thompson and Patrolman Edward Wester, of the Wanaque Reservoir Police, observed the same sight at about 9:45 P.M. as it swooped low over the reservoir. “The light was brilliantly white,” Thompson said. “It lit up the whole area for about three hundred yards. In fact, it blinded me when I got out of the patrol car to look at it, and I couldn’t see for about twenty minutes afterwards.
Forty miles south of Wanaque, in Elizabeth, New Jersey, two boys had a frightening experience that October 11, at approximately the same time that Officers Thompson and Wester were watching the glowing object cavort above the reservoir. There had been a number of aerial sightings in the vicinity of Elizabeth the previous week, apparently clustered around the New Jersey Turnpike which slices through that city. New Jersey newspapers from one end of the state to the other were filled with UFO reports during that period.
The two boys, James Yanchitis and Martin “Mouse” Munov, were walking home along Fourth Street and New Jersey Street when they reached a comer parallel to the tumpike. The tumpike is elevated and there is a very steep incline dipping down from the busy thoroughfare to Fourth Street. A very high wire fence runs along the street, making it impossible for anyone to scramble up the incline to the tumpike. There are bright street lights on that particular comer.
It was on this comer that the two young men encountered “the strangest guy we’ve ever seen.”Yanchitis spotted him first. “He was standing behind that fence,” the youth said later. “I don’t know how he got there. He was the biggest man I ever saw.” “Jimmy nudged me,” Mouse reported, “and said, ‘Who’s that guy standing behind you?’ I looked around and there he was . . .behind that fence. Just standing there. He pivoted around and looked right at us . . . and then he grinned a big old grin.
The story of Indrid Cold seems to evaporate around the same time that the Mothman flies back to wherever he had made his home and after the collapse of the Silver Bridge’.
[Taken from a Post by Tony Morrill]
Michio Kaku is an American futurist, theoretical physicist and populariser of science. Kaku is a Professor of Theoretical Physics at the City College of New York. He is the co-founder of string fieldmichio-kaku-0314-mdn theory (a branch of string theory). It is therefore appropriate that I leave you with his explanation of the 11 dimensional Multiverse theory, commonly referred to as ‘M-theory’.


© David Calvert 2016

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Time Travel: An Impossibility?


Theory and Evidence.

It is a widely held belief that each of us travels in time every day at the speed of one second per second and that it is a rate of progress that never alters, and is a universal and immutable fact. However, it is a presumption based on ignorance. Time can and does indeed change. A young child, for example, experiences time at a different rate to that of an adult. This subjective time appears to depend on where and when you are. Einstein’s theory of relativity shows us that real, physical, measurable, time acts in the same way.
According to the relativistic theory, if we take two perfectly synchronised clocks and put one close to a massive object, such as a planet, and the other a greater distance from the planet, the nearest clock will tick slower because the massive gravity distorts the flow of space-time. The resultant effect is known as the “twin paradox”. If one twin moves to a higher altitude than his sibling, he will age much faster. This effect has been confirmed in several classical experiments.
Einstein’s theories of general and special relativity however only allows for time travel into the future and not the past, and it is currently unknown as to whether the laws of physics would allow a time traveller to visit our yesteryears. He did not envisage a time machine such as the TARDIS however, but saw black holes as a method to transport us through time and space. The major drawback to this was that a simple stationary black hole wouldn’t do, because at its heart there is what is termed a ‘singularity’ where space-time ceases to exist. Anything that falls into the singularity would be crushed out of existence.
In the 1960s a brilliant New Zealand mathematician, Roy Kerr, came up with a solution to the problem. If the black hole was rotating he theorised that it would still form a singularity, but in the form of a ring. Anything falling through the ring would emerge, unscathed, in another time and place. For many relativists this was a step too far, and they set out to disprove Kerr’s equations. They failed. There was nothing in Einstein’s mathematical statements to preclude time travel, given the right technology employed to manipulate a black hole.

rotating black hole

It goes without saying that we do not currently possess such a technology, but a type III human civilisation might well have the capacity to create such a device. If humanity manages to survive for another 100,000 to a million years we will have reached a type III status and have the technological sophistication that would allow us to build a device capable of transporting us through space-time. But what would such a device look like?
American theoretical physicist, Michio Kaku came up with a description of a time machine which consists of two chambers, both containing two parallel metal plates. Between each plate an intense images (13)electrical field is created which would rip the fabric of spacetime, thus creating a wormhole that would link the two chambers. Since time runs slow for a moving object – according to Einstein’s special theory of relativity – one of the chambers is then sent out on an incredibly fast journey and returned. At either end of the wormhole time would pass at different rates. Anyone falling into one end of the hole would instantaneously be hurled into a past or future time when they emerged from the other end.

The Grandfather Paradox

This is a classic contradiction, and one which has occupied the minds of serious relativist scientists. Some have proposed that there must be a law in nature which prevents time travel and the grandfather_paradoxparadoxes that could ensue because of it. One such incongruity is the “Grandfather Paradox”. If a person travels back in time and kills his grandfather how then could he have been born in order to make the journey into the past? Sceptics see this an assault on common sense, so they argue that there must be a natural law that prevents it. This is the selfsame argument that was aimed at space flight and journeying to the Moon, to name but a few other so-called impossibilities. To discover what might exist in nature to prevent such apparent inconsistencies we need to delve into the world of quantum physics, and the “multiverse” theory.
A multiverse (aka meta-universe) is a theoretical group of universes that comprise all of reality. In an open multiverse, which is infinite, duplication is possible, even limitless identical copies of a given person. This would resolve the paradox. Having killed his grandfather the murderer would travel forward in time, but up a different branch of the multiverse in which he was never born; to a different reality where there is no paradox, because in an adjacent, alternate reality the grandfather is alive, thus allowing for the killer to be born and travel back in time to commit the murder. Each of these parallel worlds may be just as real as our own, all with an alternative history created by every decision ever made. They branch out like the limbs of a tree in every direction.
Another concern for time travellers would be spatial displacement, of which the ghostly legions of Roman soldiers witnessed in York, England, are a prime example. They seem to be walking partially embedded in the ground. This is possibly due to the fact that the ground level during their time, was lower than it is in ours. The same phenomenon is also witnessed when they appear to walk through solid objects such as walls and closed doors, that did not exist in their time. It would seem that the further through time you travel, either backwards or forwards, the worse this displacement becomes. The unwary time traveller could well end up in the middle of a mountain or the bottom of an ocean that didn’t exist in their timeline.
As you can no doubt appreciate, any physical time machine could not, therefore, travel whilst remaining on the ground. They would have to be well away from the surface in order to safely navigate temporally. Travelling through a wormhole in the vast emptiness of space would seem the most logical solution to the problem. Having exited the wormhole’s event horizon into the past, they simply continue on their short journey to the required target.
One would suppose that if future scientists have overcome the problems of time travel they may have visited our present timeline, and those before. Could what we term as “UFOs” actually be time machines and not extraterrestrial spacecraft? If so, what evidence is there to support such a conclusion? It may come as a surprise to many that some potential evidence does exist and can be found in ancient historical records, cave paintings and drawings, as well as archaeological deposits.

Historical Records, Paintings and Artefacts.

Tellingly, ancient historical records seem to show that, apart from a few basic kinds, UFOs have changed little in their appearances and capabilities. If the extraterrestrial hypothesis is to be believed then this should not be the case. We  should see a progressive change in their technology if they inhabit the same timeline as us. If, however, UFOs come from many different future eras and each one is capable of journeying to any point in time in our past we would see the same basic types from one historical era to another. There would be no trace of any technological advancement, as seems to be the case. Written documents of strange objects in the sky are numerous and date back centuries before the first flying machines were ever built and, like their modern-day counterparts, UFOs were a worldwide phenomenon. Descriptions of these curious anomalies bear a striking resemblance to present day UFOs. One of the earliest sightings dates back to ancient Egypt, circa 1504 BCE, and was written during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmose III. It bears an uncanny resemblance to the events that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on June 10, 2004. Even the Bible contains accounts of strange encounters with UFO-like objects, specifically the stories in Ezekiel, and Exodus. Similar stories can also be found in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana ancient Sanskrit texts, dating back to 4,000 BCE.
One of the most extraordinary cave paintings of apparent unidentified aerial phenomena (UAPs) niaux-cave-paintingscomes from Niaux, in the French Pyrenees. It shows two domed UFOs side by side, one of which is apparently giving off a trail of sparks, as is reported in many contemporary sightings. It is estimated that this drawing is around 14,000 years old .This is not an isolated example. There are literally hundreds of images like these throughout the world from disparate cultures, so we cannot simply dismiss them out of hand. Have ancient artists depicted what may be some of the earliest temporal sojourns of the same time travellers we see today in our skies?

Geological Evidence

The Red Mountain fossilised shoe print was discovered by a retired school teacher in Urumqi City, red mountain shoeprintChina, in 1997. It is believed to have been laid down some 200 million years ago. It is clearly the impression of a shoe with a leather sole. By any normal definition this is utterly impossible as, according to anthropological studies, it has been determined that the most modern humans came onto the scene around 200, 000 years ago. Nor is this the only footprint to have been discovered that predates humanity by millions of years. Some prints, particularly the barefooted variety, are that of modern humans (see link):
It has been postulated that lost human super civilisations may be responsible for these artefacts that span the aeons of time. Whilst it is true that written and physical evidence exists that some advanced human civilisations may have preceded ours, those societies would have existed no more than 100, 000 years ago. The age given for some of these anomalous footprints is 260,000,000 years. This is around the time when the very first reptiles began to appear.
 One of the most incredible finds by far comes from a rock that dates back 500 million years. It was meisterdiscovered within a block of Utah shale. Beneath the shoe cast a squashed trilobite, a small prehistoric marine arthropod, was discovered. It had apparently been crushed by the individual who had walked over it. Trilobites became extinct long before the emergence of even the most primitive ancestors of mankind walked the Earth.
In 1987 palaeontologist Jerry MacDonald found a variety of fossilised tracks laid down in the Permian strata. Among them was the undeniable print of a naked human foot. The Permian strata dates from 290 to 248 million years ago – once again, long before the emergence of man.
Whilst the foregoing anomalies are highly problematic and difficult to come to terms with, especially within the scientific community, there are yet other artifacts that are even more intractable. A short list of these finds follows.
• In 1901 STRAND magazine published an article on the discovery of a coin, dated 1397, found inside a 300 million-year-old coal seam.
• A gold chain, complete with cast, was accidentally discovered in a lump of coal millions of years old when it was dropped before being put onto the fire by a woman from Illinois, USA.
• The discovery of aluminium alloy screws, dated as being 100 million-years-old were also discovered, and the list goes on.
Several books have been written by author and researcher Michael Cremo cataloguing aberrant discoveries made over the last 200 years. He has documented them with eye-witness accounts, original newspaper articles and unaltered photographs. Many of these artifacts are currently gathering dust in the basements of some of the world’s most illustrious natural history museums.
There are several possible answers to this enigma:
• That we have, and still are, being visited by extraterrestrials.
• That our understanding and the history and origins of mankind is completely wrong, and there have been many advanced human societies that had once existed over tens of hundreds of millions of years, but eventually died out.
• Or that we have been visited by time travellers surveying our prehistoric past, leaving behind unintentional evidence of their temporal sojourns.

ET or Future Man?

Since the publication of Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory in 1905, he has always been credited with the concept of time being the “fourth dimension” However, in 1885 the visionary author and science fiction writer H. G. Wells’ book “The Time Machine” was published in which he wrote, “There is no difference between time and any of the three dimensions of space, except that our consciousness moves along it”, thus pre-dating Einstein’s concept by some 10 years.
Grey_Alien4This iconic figure with its bulbous head and spindly body, is what ufologists term as a “Grey alien”, which they believe comes from the Pleiades star system. Compare that with an artist’s depiction of how Wells thought a future man might look after 1,000,000 years of evolutionary changes in his 1893 article “The Man of the Year Million”. There are some interesting and thought provoking similarities.
Might Wells have been closer to the truth, regarding the Greys’ terrestrial origins? Anatomically, they are as close to humans as it is possible to get. Moreover, they even speak the same languages as man-year-millionwe do. They even appear to act and think as we do. For some ufologists and scientists this flies in the face of reason. A truly alien species, they believe, would be nothing like us anatomically, or culturally, because their evolutionary paths would be entirely different to that of our own. If we apply the time travel hypothesis, however, these apparent inconsistencies suddenly make some kind of sense.
Currently, the UFO fraternity are buzzing about time travel, due in no small part to the revelations of James Penniston. For those not in the know, Penniston was an Air Force Staff Sergeant at a joint USAF/RAF base at Bentwaters in the UK. He, and others, encountered a triangular craft outside the base in Rendlesham Forest on December 26 1980. Penniston was the only member of the team to actually touch the object which contained strange symbols. Sometime in 1993 he underwent a regression hypnotherapy session in which he revealed receiving telepathic communication from the landed craft which informed him that the occupants were from Earth’s future, and that they were gathering genetic material to help them survive. The Rendlesham Forest Incident has become one of the best documented UFO sightings in the history of ufology, surpassing that of the Roswell Incident.
Though science isn’t perfect, its exponential growth over the last hundred years or so has made what was once considered unachievable possible. The aspiration of powered flight was believed to be unattainable not so very long ago. However, in that short space of time we have not only attained it but have travelled to the Moon and back, and have even sent spacecraft out beyond the confines of our solar system. Given another million years of evolution who’s to say what can or cannot be achieved? It may well be that we are perhaps witnessing the future fruits and attainments of our progenitors’ scientific accomplishments as they traverse the barriers of space and time, leaving in their wake tantalising clues of their temporal journeys. The evidence certainly seems to hint at it.

09/07/16 update:

© David Calvert 2015

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This article covers characteristics, speed, rotation, wobble, radiation, maneuvres, sounds, landing traces etc. The article aims to help the reader make some “technological sense” out of certain aspects of the UFO pattern. Some of the concepts are technical, but I’ve attempted to present them in a language which nearly everyone should understand.
Enhanced image of Belgium UFO.
image_2Shapes and sizes of UFOs, as reported by eye-witnesses, change over time. Since the mid-1970’s a growing percentage of UFO reports has been of dark/black triangles and chevrons, some incredibly large and reported all over the world (note: triangle-shaped UFOs have been reported at least as far back as the 1950’s and are not a recent phenomena). In recent years the objects reported near the ground or landing are mostly smaller ones up to 5-m (15-ft.) sphere/half-sphere/ovoid/triangular, down to beach ball sized spherical objects, in contrast to the majority of larger objects like the 5-10-m. (15-35-ft.) discs and ovals in earlier decades. 
Propulsion: UFO researchers including, H Oberth, L Cramp, J Harder, J Campbell, C Poher and P Hill, through a process if elimination of alternatives, speculated on UFO propulsion by accepting a hypothetical gravity-like ‘force field’ which could be repulsive as well as attractive i.e. artificial gravity fields, or what is popularly referred to as “anti-gravity.”
Indeed, witness reports describe that these fields bend and break tree branches, bump or slow automobiles spinning them out of control or tipping them over, stop people by force or knock them down. Under close analysis, the subtleties of these interactions combine to point unequivocally to a repulsive force field surrounding the craft. There is no jet propulsion and no ejection propellant of any kind, like those used to give thrust to a rocket. UFOs do not create any significant downdraft of air; unlike a helicopter or Vertical Take Off and Landing aircraft when they hover. UFOs also do not create any significant air-disturbance (turbulence and noise) when they move. Close range eye-witnesses will typically use terms like “floated” or “glided”, or “drifted” to describe how a UFO moved smoothly and swiftly through the air. Apparently, UFOs use the atmosphere neither for support nor for locomotion (unlike balloons, airplanes, helicopters, birds etc). UFOs don’t use aerodynamic lift designs such as those used on ordinary aircraft wings (See diagram).


The middle word “flying” in the U.F.O. acronym is an unsuitable term. UFOs don’t “fly”, they are vectored along trajectories. In this instance the term ‘vectored’ means changing the UFO’s direction by altering the airflow control force field (ACFF).
NASA aeronautical engineer Paul R. Hill in his book “Unconventional Flying Objects: A Scientific Analysis” explains how UFOs may utilise acceleration-type (i.e. gravity-like) force fields in several ways: externally for propulsion and airflow-control (shock-wave suppression and drag reduction) and inside the vehicle for acceleration neutralization during manoeuvres (so UFO occupants can withstand the tremendous accelerations, which would certainly kill a human pilot). Of the first two field types, the UFO propulsive force field (PFF) may be thought as being long-range, narrow and focused. Whereas, the UFO airflow-control force field (ACFF) may be thought as short-range, continuous and having components which are uniformly distributed with respect to direction.
In his book, Hill – who was a famous aerodynamicist in his day, provides calculations and possible arrangement of force field generators within spherical and oval UFOs, which would produce the necessary effects, including the ability of UFOs to travel supersonically without generating a sonic boom. Manipulation of the surrounding air/water by the ACFF would, even at supersonic speeds, result in a constant-pressure, constant-density flow around the UFO, in which the UFO is surrounded by a subsonic flow-pattern of streamlines, and subsonic velocity ratios (hence no shock wave, i.e. sonic boom). This minimizes friction and heating issues. An additional benefit of the ACFF is that drops of rain, dust, insects, or other objects would follow streamline paths around the UFO rather than impact it.
Effectively, the ACFF creates a “protective shield” around the UFO, much like an incandescent light bulb. Imagine the UFO is the filament and the bulb is the air-control field around it, which protects the UFO and keeps the surrounding medium (air/water) from coming in touch with it.
The Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) case of a farmer in Miller County, Missouri 14-Feb-1967, who threw rocks at a UFO and they bounced off an invisible barrier is one such case which seems to confirm this. Another case occurred during the Korean War in 1951 (see link).


Could the “aura-like” glow of the air (i.e. “plasma sheath”) around many UFOs be due to the images (9)ionization of surrounding air by the electromagnetic (EM) radiation accompanying the UFO “airflow-control” force field (ACFF) used for shockwave suppression and drag reduction (resistance experienced by a body moving through a fluid medium, especially by an aircraft when travelling through the air).? The ACFF apparently creates an envelope of lower atmospheric density (vacuum) around the UFO, by pushing the surrounding medium (air/water) away from the skin of the UFO.
UFOs seem to switch off their ACFF when they hover near the ground or land, which eliminates the “plasma sheath” and allows details of the UFO to be seen.
UFOs observed to travel continuously at Mach 4 or 5 (4939.2 k/ph or 6174 k/ph) do not appear to generate temperatures sufficiently high to be destructive to known materials. In other words, UFOs appear to prevent high aerodynamic heating rates rather than permitting a heating problem to arise. It appears they do not require heat-resistant materials such as the NASA Space Shuttle, whose surface temperatures can reach 1300°C. The resolution of this potential problem may derive from the fact that the force-field control that results in the prevention of shockwave drag, mentioned earlier, is also effective in preventing aerodynamic heating. In effect, the airflow approaches then springs away from the craft, depositing no energy in the process.
Merging/Splitting: UFOs have been reported “splitting” into smaller objects, in a soundless “explosion” with bright light (e.g. Rendlesham forest Dec-1980, or Puerto Rico 28-Dec-1988).
The following statement comes from a MUFON (Mutual UFO Network) Event Report.
We were outside sitting on the porch at 8:45 p.m. smoking a cigarette. It’s been my habit for the last few weeks to check for a particular star as it comes into view over the treetops around that time every night. I look for it every night because it’s always the brightest star in view over my house. I saw it in its usual spot, but then I noticed another, brighter star that was twinkling through the trees a little to the east of my star. As I focused on it, I realized that it wasn’t twinkling … it was flashing. My husband was out with me and I called his attention to it. I asked him if it was the space station (which I thought MY star was) but as we watched it, it flashed brighter with multicoloured lights. Red, blue, green, yellow, orange. We got up and walked out into the yard, thinking to see it better through the trees.
It hovered the whole time … but would raise and lower a little bit, but randomly. It wasn’t a trick of the eye, though. We noticed at the same time. Then I saw it split into two lights, twinkling different colours. The second, new one rose up from the first only slightly and hovered a few seconds, before merging back into the first. That’s when I went in to get the camera.
I called my friend in Carl Junction to ask if she could see it from her house. I told her which direction, she went outside and almost immediately spotted it. She described to me exactly what I was seeing … the flashing, multicoloured lights, the slight rising and falling … it was like nothing any of us have ever seen before. She also started filming from her vantage point. I filmed … I don’t know … 30 minutes or so over the course of an hour, and got several very clear still shots. This object followed a track across the sky — but slower than all the rest of the stars, I think. I have no idea what this object is … it could very well be the space station. But I would like a very thorough explanation and demonstration as to why this thing broke apart, merged, and flashed so many different colours for so long. It was like nothing I’d ever seen before.
The Marfa Merging Lights link (Unrelated to the above testimony):
Note: Could the Marfa lights be related to ball lightning or other ‘earthlight’ Phenomena such as put forward by the Tectonic Strain Theory (TST)?
Rotation/Spin: UFOs with a round cross-section (e.g. spheres, disks, ovals, cones, cylinders) are often reported to exhibit a rotating motion. Many discoid UFOs have luminous “portholes” (“windows”, “vents”) arranged in a circular band around their circumference often give the illusion of rotation, by blinking multi-colours in sequence, or a single colour in which each light will individually pulse brighter periodically. Witnesses often describe them as “chase lights” or “lights on a theater marquee”.
Note: Rotation of “lights” at the rim of saucers is practically always reported to be counter-clockwise i.e. left to right as seen from the side. A few UFOs have been reported to have two rotating sections, which counter-rotate. UFOs are almost never reported to rotate in their entirety, despite the popular myth. Examples: Waterbury CT 1987, America West Airlines Flight 564 May-1995, Newport CA 2009, Puerto Rico 1990, Redlands, CA USA 1968, Blenheim, New Zealand 1959, Bexley, UK 1955.
Some have suggested that the rotating components of UFOs may be for gyroscopic stabilisation. Others suspect it is connected to the propulsion system and to that effect are intrigued by the parallels with recent scientific literature on gravity effects of rotating superconductors and the subject of field effects caused by moving matter known as “Gravitomagnetism”.
Some discoid UFOs (e.g. saucers, Saturn-shaped etc) have been reported to have a rotating outer rim, which is described as spinning (or “vibrating”) independently from the central part, or cupola, which remains stationary.
Wobble: When hovering or moving slowly, some spherical UFOs (e.g. saucers, Saturns) exhibit a “wobble” in a sinusoidal path, an undulating “rocking” motion, like a gyroscope or a top (other expressions used by witnesses: “like a boat at anchor on water” or “tipping right and left”), similar to that of a spinning coin as it is winding down and closely approaching a flat surface.
There is some evidence which suggests that the UFO gravity-like force field has a cyclic component, i.e. periodically attracts and repels matter. Also, in several cases of round, hovering, UFOs (discoid, spherical and egg shaped) the gravity-like force field seems to prevail within a cylindrical zone having about the same diameter as the UFO and extending from it down to the ground. This force field acts upon objects underneath the UFO, and also seems to be imparting them a rotation (a torque or turning force) as suggested by the spinning.
Note: Could the gravity-like force field be responsible for some crop circles?
The swirling of loose materials (plants, sand, snowflakes etc) has been reported rising towards hovering UFOs suggesting an anti-gravity effect. The same effect has also been reported over bodies of water, such as seas and lakes (see diagram).


UFOs’ non-propellant propulsion and associated phenomena seem to defy our Physics theories. Both Classical Mechanics (Newton’s gravity) and General Relativity (Einstein’s theory of gravitation), require the existence of “negative mass” (or energy) for antigravity to be possible. However, the Standard Model of particle physics does not permit negative mass. To overcome these objections, other UFO researchers (e.g. physicists Friedman, Meesen, Petit, Warmkessel), attempt to explain UFO propulsion based solely on the currently established physics theories; in particular on “Magneto Hydrodynamics” (MHD), i.e. ionize the ambient air into plasma and then work with magnetic fields.
Test vehicles have been built around MHD principles, including the EM submarine model tested by Dr S. Way of UCSB in 1965, the submarine Yamato 1 of Japan in 1992 or the proposed “Wingless Electromagnetic Air Vehicle” – WEAV  by Dr S. Roy of the University of Florida in 2008. Although UFOs would become more acceptable, if more of the UFO pattern could be explained in terms of today’s scientific principles, IMHO and MHD-type methods simply don’t conform to the UFO evidence (e.g. it doesn’t account for the direct gravity effects).
But all is not lost yet. As mentioned in the “Rotation/Spin” section above, there is new but yet unconfirmed scientific research in the field of gravity effects of rotating superconductors and “Gravitomagnetism”. Anomalous gravity effects have been reported e.g. in Mar-2006 Austrian physicist M.Tajmar and others in an experiment funded by ESA (European Space Agency), reported generation of a toroidal (doughnut-shaped) gravitational field in a rotating accelerated superconducting Niobium ring.

gravity effects1

Theoretical frameworks include work by Sakharov, Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff (Zero-Point-Field and polarisable vacuum) and by Burkhard Heim (newscientist).
Radiation: When airborne, UFOs emit invisible electromagnetic (EM) wave energy with ionizing capability. There is some evidence and theory indicating that the EM radiation is about coincident with the UFO’s “gravity-like” force fields, i.e. gravity-like waves (used for propulsion and airflow control) and ionizing EM waves go together, the latter being some form of support for the generation of force field waves, or simply a side-effect (i.e. propulsive waves may have an electromagnetic component). 
Hill estimated UFO primary radiation to be in a range between the bottom of X-ray band and the lower end of Gamma-ray band. (Wikipedia: Electromagnetic spectrum and Ionizing radiation) These X-rays or mild gamma-rays are quite adequate to create the universally seen “ion sheath” aroundimages (11) UFOs. Conversely, the existence of the ionized air around UFOs lends weight to the idea of high-intensity EM radiation from the UFO. X-rays would also penetrate a few inches of soil, giving up their energy to plant-root depths. Soil being a thermal insulator, the heat would escape slowly and the temperature would build up with time below a low-hovering UFO. Much ground heating data is from saucer-type UFOs, which are known to focus their force fields and accompanying ionizing radiation downward with considerable accuracy, because of the observed saucer “ion cones” (See enhanced insert).
Mild Gamma-rays are suspected for symptoms similar to radiation sickness in witnesses who have closely approached UFOs. However, lasting radioactivity, which would indicate the presence of particle radiation, has not been found at landing sites.
It should be noted that radiation has been suspected to be associated with UFO sightings since the early 1950s. The classic 1955 book “Report on UFOs” by Edward J. Ruppelt, who served as head of the United States Air Force’s UFO Project “Blue Book” between 1951-1953 and later research engineer at Northrop Aircraft Company, mentions grass roots charring and skin burn of a Florida scoutmaster in 1952.
Physiological effects on human witnesses who came close to a UFO, include a sense of “static” (hair stood on end) or prickling sensation and in some cases a heating / burning sensation, vibration , and temporary paralysis (attributed to shock/fear, but I think more study is needed since animals are reportedly also affected). After-effects of close encounters may include sunburned-like skin and eye irritation (e.g. conjunctivitis), extreme dryness of the nasal area and of the throat, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and general weakness. There have been a few cases of people and animals that stood directly under a UFO who experienced symptoms similar to radiation-sickness. People who have stared at glowing UFOs at close range have suffered “welder burn”-type eye damage, temporary loss of vision and even lasting eye damage (note: UV?). Occasionally odours have been reported, described as “ozone-like”, “foul stench”, “pungent”, “sulphuric stink”, etc. Accidents have occurred. Further reading: “A catalogue of UFO-related human physiological effects” (1996) by John Schuessler and UFO cases involving injury/death by Geoff Dittman.
Plasmas can interact strongly with electromagnetic radiation, “Plasma Stealth” is a proposed process that uses ionized gas (plasma) to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of an aircraft. This radar screenmay explain why sometimes UFOs are seen visually, but not tracked on radar. Often, UFOs have a very strong magnetic field. Also, in several cases, light (e.g. from car headlights or beaming spotlights) are reported to “bend” in front of the UFO, an effect which some suggest is related with the most controversial aspect of UFO reports: the apparent ability to disappear / “blink out” or seem to “implode” (diminish in angular size) [miniature-scale “gravitational lensing”-type phenomenon?]. Given the tremendous amount of energy UFOs seem to be expending, their power source is a big mystery. Many ideas have been proposed, including that UFOs are storing energy in a very concentrated form, or converting gravity to usable energy (H.Oberth 1950s), or utilising ambient energy (speculations about being able to tap the so-called Zero-Point-Energy), or utilize remote transmission of power (wireless energy transfer).
Interference: Electromagnetic (EM) effects that are observed include: interruption of electrical circuitry and radio communications, magnetic and gyro compasses gyrate and wobble, batteries are burned out. Car gasoline engines stop (but oddly, diesels are apparently unaffected). More: 56 aircraft pilot UFO sightings involved EM-effects and strong magnetic fields. The absence of heat near a UFO, with only mild sensation of warmth, suggests there is not much infra-red radiation. The surface of the UFO is not very hot; nothing is at a red heat. A “corona”, i.e. luminous plasma (ionized air) is produced around specific areas of the UFO, probably created by the intense EM radiation (radiant ionization).
Further research on magnetic fields and automobile ignition systems.
A strong magnetic field might saturate the ignition coil and reduce voltage to the spark plugs. Joe Kirk Thomas, while employed as an EM interference engineer, did some experiments which led him to believe that “interference with automotive ignition systems could occur at magnetic field levels (at the point of interference) of 0.1 Tesla / 1000 Gauss and frequency of 100 Hz.” (MUFON Journal, Sep-1987, Oct-1989) Under this scenario, automobiles with diesel engines are immune to being stalled by the proximity of a UFO, because diesel engines do not utilize a high voltage ignition system.
Another idea, suggested by J.McCampbell: Once ionised to form a plasma, air loses its normal insulating properties and will conduct electricity at lower voltages (commonly referred to as the insulator ‘breakdown voltage’) and thus short-circuits the high-voltage part of the ignition. Note: Could this be related to the tingling sensations, of hair standing up on end and other physiological effects reported by witnesses when in close proximity to UFOs?.
Illumination / Colours, luminosity and lights: (note: this is a complex subject and much of what follows is speculation and conjecture).
Though a few UFOs appear totally dark and unlit (no light in the visible spectrum), the most common aspect of UFO sightings made at night, or twilight, is that the UFO appeared to be a source of light, rather than just reflecting light from elsewhere. In fact, about two thirds of all UFO reports are of distant lights moving in the night sky.
As suggested in the previous sections on UFO Radiation and Propulsion , many of the UFO “lights” are thought to be luminous ionization of air, resulting from energetic EM radiation emitted by the UFOs in relation with the UFO gravity-like force fields (used for airflow-control, propulsion etc). The overall shape of UFO luminosity depends on the shape of the UFO and its current operating condition and manoeuvres, so a UFO’s outline as seen by external observer can change (e.g. a disk at night may appear as a luminous ice cream-cone, teardrop, oval or sphere). UFO glow can vary from faint (“like phosphorescence”), to soft (“like a neon light”), to intense (“like huge car headlights”), to extremely bright (“like welder’s arc”).

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Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity Theory

 a possible causal factor in alien abduction
David Calvert
EM fieldsThe basis of this theory is that there exists within the population – as the clinical studies of Albert Budden have shown – individuals who have the propensity to undergo realistic and vivid hallucinatory/visionary experiences associated with specific clinical parameters as a result of being exposed to fields from a variety  of sources of electrical and electromagnetic (EM) pollution in the environment ( see diagram). Under prolonged exposure to EM field irradiation, the electromagnetically hypersensitive percipients’ brains become electrically destabilized and they experience hallucinations as visual seizures and show signs and symptoms typical of  epileptiform states. These consciousness effects have come to be known as “alien contact” , or “abduction” experiences (CE IIIs and CE IVs respectively).
Budden’s studies have shown that such experiencers have developed an environmental sensitivity syndrome (ESS), including electrical hypersensitivity brought on by synergistic conditions in the environment which include major electrical event exposure (e.g., lightning strike proximity, electrocution, ball lightning, earth lights, corona discharges, etc.) and subsequent ongoing electromagnetic hotspot irradiation. Their sensitivity to environmental electromagnetic energies is what produces acute end states such as hallucinatory/visionary perceptions, including those formerly identified as psychic experiences, and latterly, interactions with extraterrestrials.
The dramatic and relatively sudden advance and proliferation of  electronic communication systems using radio frequency (RF) and microwave fields may well be instrumental in the production and exacerbation of  EH consciousness effects in the population.
Most importantly, Budden noticed that these experiences were set within the context of a consistent cluster of physical signs and symptoms, which were indicative of recognisable clinical effects and conditions including sensitivities  such as food allergies and chemical intolerances. Combined with psychological stress, which also induces adverse chemical changes in the body, it is instrumental in producing a breakdown of the bodies regulatory systems. This physiological dysfunction may lead to an intolerance threshold in nutritional, chemical and electromagnetic terms, known as the “load phenomenon”. Budden recognised, too, that if it were  true, the identification of such conditions could become a method of filtering out the hoaxes and fantasies from genuine cases.
In close encounter events individuals who have reached critical sensitivities may exhibit bizarre conscious effects when exposed to natural and man-made field emissions such as ball lightning, antennae/pylons, earthlights, etc. They are triggered to experience visionary, hallucinatory and emergent consciousness effects as shared hallucinations and/or veridical experiences which give information about the load phenomenon and/or body’s sensitivities/weaknesses in symbolic form.
Others may even share the “abduction” event. Emissions of personal fields, resulting from the allergic responses by the main EH focus/witness, can induct others into shared hallucinations when such personal fields merge with an ambient field that encloses all parties. The interpenetrating electrical medium links the nervous system of secondary witnesses to that of the EH focus as an induction effect.
The evidence of this theory is taken from control samples and actual case studies. The control samples were chosen on the basis that they were not subject to electromagnetic pollution and did not live in locations with raised levels of ambient fields (hot spots). Also absent were major electrical events in their lives, food allergies and chemical sensitivities. When compared with the study group, preliminary results showed that subjects who had not undergone a major electrical event did not develop electrical hypersensitivity or subsequently perceived formed figures, alien contact/abduction experiences etc., unlike the study group.
It  is hoped that the following example will provide the reader with some insights as to the correlations presented.
‘The Yorkshire Girl’

yorkshire girl

Since the age of sixteen Jane has reported repeated contact with aliens. Sometimes this takes the form of abduction into a “spaceship” that appears in the fields at the bottom of her garden, and at other times they appear in her bedroom at night. She describes them as tall with very large eyes, and during an ‘abduction’ episode, as she lay on a table, one of them had sexual intercourse with her. During the same episode, she saw some female aliens drinking something  from cups, and when she asked for a drink also, was firmly refused. She was also led to a table on which were a number of coloured sweets, and when she ate one, was severely admonished by an alien who told her that she should not eat them. About a week after this experience she developed a vaginal infection that was successfully treated at a local hospital.


At the age of sixteen, Jane watched an orange ball of light circle her house, causing interference to the radio. This may have been a geologically produced earth light. Such aerial lights (termed electroforms) have been reported in association with power lines, a row of which ran across the bottom of her garden.


It evidently irradiated the house interior causing radio interference via power surges, and would have constituted a major electrical event. A major radio frequency (RF) antennae is positioned on a hill overlooking the house about 800 metres away. Her vaginal infection turned out to be a fungal overgrowth of candida, which is fed by the presence of sugar in the body, and her abduction experience include an aspect that indicated that she should not eat sweets. It is also relevant that she developed an acute and sudden allergy to sugared coffee. which made her vomit. This appears to have been represented by the depiction of the group of female aliens drinking from coffee cups, from which she was firmly barred. She also suffers chemical sensitivities, including an intolerance to domestic gas, and watches very little TV, as she seems to be sensitive to the fields it emits.

The sexual overtones she experienced during her abduction could have been induced by the septal area of the brain. Such responses have been induced under clinical conditions by neurologist Wilder Penfield, et al, by electrical stimulation of that area of the brain. However, with EH subjects no contact is required and EM fields from transmitter and/or pylons can induce a variety of hallucinatory sensations depending on the part of the brain in which focal seizures are initiated. This stimulation would cue appropriate imagery within the visionary drama, and in this case certainly seems to have induced the ‘alien intercourse’ sequence in combination with the presence of vaginal candida, which in physiological terms is also alien to the body.

Brain's limbic system vector

Proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) appear unwilling to accept any alternative explanation for the phenomena under study. However correlations indicate an extremely robust effect, which soon become self-evident when investigated openly according to outlined parameters.


Budden, A (1994): Allergies and Aliens. Discovery Time Press
Smith, C & Best, S (1989): Electromagnetic Man. Dent.
European Journal of UFO and Abduction Studies (EJUFOAS), September issue 1999.
Patient Information Pamphlet: Candida, The Breakspear Hospital. Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire UK.
Nathan, Peter (1988): The Nervous System. pp 233: Oxford University Press.
Gilroy, John MD (1990): Basic Neurology. Pergamon Press.

© David Calvert 2011

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The Tectonic Strain Theory (TST)

The Tectonic Strain Theory


David Calvert


The basis of this theory is that forces generated within the Earth’s crust give rise to anomalous luminous phenomena (ALP), and their contemporary equivalent UFOs, the major source of these phenomena being tectonic stress.

The suggestion is that heat is generated when the Earth’s tectonic plates rub together and that any water held in the surrounding rock is vaporised. This then becomes ionised and forms an insulating sheath around the fault, forcing the charge above ground. The air above the fault also becomes ionised, creating a luminous plasma of ionised gas above the fault, which appears as a floating ball of glowing light or ALP.


Tagish Lake A.L.Ps.

It was the renowned student of the anomalous, Charles Fort (1874-1932), who was among the first to note that strange ‘meteors’ seemed to coincide with earthquakes and tremors. In the 1960s the French researcher, Ferdinand Lagarde focussed tightly on the connection between the fault lines and UFOs and discovered that at least 40% of reported low-level UFO activity occurred over, or close to, fractures in the earth’s crust.

In 1997, two years after earth-mysteries researchers Paul Devereux and Andrew York published their findings of a survey in which they discovered significant meteorological anomalies of ‘strange lightning’ and UFO sightings occurring



frequently over fault-line regions, Michael Persinger, a neuroscientist and geologist at Laurentian University in Canada, together with Gyslaine Lafrenière, published their study of United States earthquake epicenters and noted a strong correlation between these and high levels of UFO activity. They came to see UFOs as electromagnetic phenomena arising from the vast energy released through the structural distortion of the earth’s crust that often preceded full-blown earthquakes.


Both scientists envisioned fields of naturally occurring forces operating evenly, and without significant effect, over very large regions. But they also felt these regions could become focussed in a few small areas of particular geological resistance or instability to produce strange airborne lights. Thus the first public airing of what ufologists now term Tectonic Strain Theory or TST was given. However, Devereux believes the phenomenon is still not fully understood. His opinion is that the lights are triggered by a chain reaction of electrical forces in the atmosphere and in the earth’s crust – not solely by seismic activity. The combination of these factors create stress fields of magnetic and electrical energies that produce ALPs, such as the fireball photographed at Long Valley, New Jersey, in 1976.

The evidence for this theory is evident in the spatial and temporal relationship between UFO reports and seismicity. Retrospective studies strongly suggest a rapid onset of ALP and UFO reports take place approximately 10 days before a strong and unexpected earthquake. Where six-month increments of analyses were employed, the correlation was almost always statistically significant, showing a strong relationship between UFOs and seismic events.

It was the events in Hessdalen, Norway, that really put the ALP on the ufology agenda. In November 1981, people began to see strange lights in the sky, just below the summits and ridges of the surrounding mountains. These white and yellow-white lights took on the appearance of spheres, ‘bullets’ with pointed end downwards, and inverted ‘Christmas tree’ shapes. Reports also included flashes in the sky and curious rumbling sounds (seismic activity?).

hessdalen lights

In the 1970s the Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington State, was visited by huge orange fireballs that were seen floating above rocks, accompanied by smaller ‘pingpong’ balls of lights, which danced along the ridges. These lights were often seen in the vicinity of the ridges that ran across a zone riddled with fault lines and with Status Peak the site of a surface rupture. Seven months later the biggest earthquake in the area occurred.

Some years later, 52 observations of light phenomena were logged by Quebec University researchers in the Sanguenay-Lake St. John region of southeast Canada, between November 1988 and 21st January, 1989. fireballs metres in diameter were seen repeatedly popping out of the ground – some only a few metres away from the observers. Both stationary and moving balls of light were seen several hundreds of metres in the air, some lasting up to 12 minutes. Once again these UFO-type phenomena were associated with rising tectonic strain leading up to local earthquakes.

Also in 1989, geochemist Paul McCartney published a report of his investigation into earthlights activity in northwest Wales in 1904-5. He discovered that these lights followed the course of the deep-rooted Mochras Fault. Significantly, the outbreak of these lights occurred during a spate of earthquakes in various parts of Wales between 1892 and 1906. An earthquake measuring 5.5 on the Richter scale brought the lights back briefly in July 1984. This occurred in the Lleyn Peninsula, one of Britain’s most seismic active areas – and epicentre.

The possible link between ALP and UFOs has caused a schism in the ufological community. Advocates of the ET spacecraft theory fail to see how small lights can explain ‘solid body’ craft seen in daylight. In reply, the TST researchers contend that popocatapetyl lightsthe lights can sometimes reach ‘standard’ flying saucer sizes. What is more, if ALP are some kind of plasma (hot, electrically charged gas), then they would also appear shiny and metallic in daylight. It would certainly explain the ‘silvery discs’ reported by many in Mexico during a prolonged UFO ‘flap’. Here, geomagnetic anomalies and dancing lights have been recorded increasingly around the active volcano, Popocatepetl.

TS theorists have speculated that such physical properties should reflect some fundamental feature of the local earth’s crust and the medium through which the ALP is generated. For example: sulphide-based ores would be expected to generate sulphuroxide or methyl sulphonamide (the smell added to propane gas), correlative quartz dioritewith the LP. Reports of ‘residual radiation’ might well be the product of acidious quartz diorite, which promotes the release of the relatively common radioactive gas, raydon. Enhanced gas emissions and chemiluminescence have been postulated to generate at least some types of earthquake lights. It should be expected, therefore, that measurable residues of LP, when they touch the ground, should reflect the primary constituents of crustal material. The few metallurgical analyses that have been conducted have borne this out, revealing oxidised forms of the most frequent elements of common rocks such as silica, manganese, and aluminium. Quantitative estimates indicate that only a few grams of metal, scattered along a strong electromagnetic surface, would appear as ‘metallic’.


The X Factor (1997), issue 23: Marshall Cavendish Ltd. Persinger, M. A. & Lafrenière, G.F. (1997), Space-time transients and unusual events. Nelson Hall, Chicago.

Devereux, P. (1989), Earth Lights Revelation. Blandford, London.

Derr, J. S. & Persinger, M. A. (1986), Experientia Hedevari, P. & Noszticzius, Z. (1985), Annales Geophisicae.

© David Calvert 2011

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The Extraterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH).

David Calvert


Of all hypotheses concerning UFOs, the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) is perhaps the most enduring. Briefly stated, it is the belief that UFOs are spacecraft piloted by alien intelligences from other worlds. But what substance is there for such a widely held belief? Who are these visitors and where have they come from?

The dawn of the modern UFO era began in 1947 with the Kenneth Arnold sighting of nine flying discs over the Cascade Mountains, Washington State, USA. From this event the term ‘flying saucer’ came into being. But how did the simple sighting of these objects evolve into spacecraft piloted by beings from other worlds?

Scientists before the commencement of WWII had already mooted the exploration and possible colonisation of space. It was during the war, however, that rocket technology truly advanced, and humanity took a closer step to achieving its dream. If the exploration of space was within our grasp, came the logical argument, then who was to say that a more advanced civilisation had not already done so?

BC5002-001.jpg  UFO

In 1947 and the intervening years, reports of extraordinary craft and their occupants began to surface. The aerodynamic design and flight characteristics were far in advance of anything humanity had achieved at the time. Even with today’s technology we cannot duplicate them, thus supporting the notion that they were extraterrestrial in origin. Reason and science are now telling us that the declarations of early contactees such as George Adamski, and others, who claimed to have made contact with beings from Venus, Saturn, and Mars, are extremely unlikely and suspect, because unmanned probes sent to these worlds have thus far been unable to detect even the simplest of microorganisms, let alone sentient intelligence (although in the latter case recent developments show that this might not be true).

As our knowledge of our solar neighbours expands we are increasingly forced to look further afield for the origins of these strange visitors. In doing so we must first assume that; (1) extraterrestrial intelligences have arisen elsewhere in the universe, perhaps many times, (2) that some form of technologically advanced civilisation has reached the point whereby interstellar travel is possible; and (3) that such civilisations have arrived here on Earth and are pursuing covert missions.

Frank Drake, a scientist and one of the pioneers of SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) formulated an equation that attempts to give a number as to how many intelligences there may be in the universe.



This equation contains cosmic, biological, and technological terms. The first expresses the conditions necessary for the existence of stars with planets suitable for the appearance of life. R is the number of stars formed per year in our galaxy; S is the fraction of these stars that are of solar type; P is the fraction of these that have planets; E is the number of planets situated at distances from the stars that are suitable to the appearance of life.

Next, we have the biological terms. L is the fraction of planets on which life appears; I is the fraction of these on which intelligence develops;

Finally, the technological terms. C is the fraction of intelligent species that develop communications technology; V is the lifetime of the communication phase in years. Interestingly, this equation produces an alarmingly high number of possible intelligences.

To date, SETI have been unable to detect any alien made radio wave/pulses from neighbouring star systems, in apparent contradiction of the extraterrestrial hypothesis, thereby adding fuel to the School of One concept – that we are indeed alone in the universe.

The Sutton aliensThis naturally creates a paradox. If we are indeed the only intelligence, then who or what is responsible for the global sightings of structured craft and their bizarre occupants, such as was reported in 1955 by the Sutton family. They endured a three-hour ordeal at their farmhouse in Hopkinsville, Kentucky, USA, at the hands of several ‘glowing creatures’, following the landing of a UFO.

In the majority of close encounters of the 3rd and 4th kind the entities are frequently described as being anthropomorphic i.e. two arms, two legs etc. But many biologists believe this would be extremely improbable, given that our evolutionary path is the result of certain influencing factors such as the composition of our atmosphere, gravity, our distance from the sun, and many others. The suggestion, therefore, that there are countless other worlds whose characteristics match ours exactly, and whose inhabitants have followed the same genetic pathways and mutations as ours is, they believe, untenable. By applying such logic we reach the inescapable conclusion that it is the more outlandish entities that give credence and support to the extraterrestrial hypothesis.

Another stumbling (though not insurmountable) block for the ETH is the vast interstellar distances involved. Spacecraft capable of travelling interstellar distances are currently way beyond our technological skills. Even if we built a ship capable of travelling at light speed (300,000 km per second) it would take at least 100,000 years for it to travel from one edge of our galaxy to the other.

Milky Way Galaxy

However, advanced alien civilisations may have overcome this problem by using their advanced knowledge of the fabric of space-time. Theoretically, it is possible to travel faster than the speed of light. The four-dimensional universe consists of length, breadth, height and time. By manipulating or ‘bending’ space-time, so that the space behind you expands vastly and the space ahead of you shrinks or collapses, you arrive at your destination in literally no time at all.

There are literally dozens of recorded alien species alleged to be visiting our home world, but how many of them are genuine?  We have to take in factors such as cultural influences, hallucinations, hoaxes, mental aberrations, and mass hysteria – to name but a few.  Given the thousands upon thousands of reports from all around the globe, from all walks of life and cultures, this author finds it possible that at least a few of these encounters could be of genuine extraterrestrial biological entities (EBEs).

© David Calvert 2011

Update 12/5/16

Drake’s Equation Revised.

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