Time Travel: An Impossibility?


Theory and Evidence.

It is a widely held belief that each of us travels in time every day at the speed of one second per second and that it is a rate of progress that never alters, and is a universal and immutable fact. However, it is a presumption based on ignorance. Time can and does indeed change. A young child, for example, experiences time at a different rate to that of an adult. This subjective time appears to depend on where and when you are. Einstein’s theory of relativity shows us that real, physical, measurable, time acts in the same way.
According to the relativistic theory, if we take two perfectly synchronised clocks and put one close to a massive object, such as a planet, and the other a greater distance from the planet, the nearest clock will tick slower because the massive gravity distorts the flow of space-time. The resultant effect is known as the “twin paradox”. If one twin moves to a higher altitude than his sibling, he will age much faster. This effect has been confirmed in several classical experiments.
Einstein’s theories of general and special relativity however only allows for time travel into the future and not the past, and it is currently unknown as to whether the laws of physics would allow a time traveller to visit our yesteryears. He did not envisage a time machine such as the TARDIS however, but saw black holes as a method to transport us through time and space. The major drawback to this was that a simple stationary black hole wouldn’t do, because at its heart there is what is termed a ‘singularity’ where space-time ceases to exist. Anything that falls into the singularity would be crushed out of existence.
In the 1960s a brilliant New Zealand mathematician, Roy Kerr, came up with a solution to the problem. If the black hole was rotating he theorised that it would still form a singularity, but in the form of a ring. Anything falling through the ring would emerge, unscathed, in another time and place. For many relativists this was a step too far, and they set out to disprove Kerr’s equations. They failed. There was nothing in Einstein’s mathematical statements to preclude time travel, given the right technology employed to manipulate a black hole.

rotating black hole

It goes without saying that we do not currently possess such a technology, but a type III human civilisation might well have the capacity to create such a device. If humanity manages to survive for another 100,000 to a million years we will have reached a type III status and have the technological sophistication that would allow us to build a device capable of transporting us through space-time. But what would such a device look like?
American theoretical physicist, Michio Kaku came up with a description of a time machine which consists of two chambers, both containing two parallel metal plates. Between each plate an intense images (13)electrical field is created which would rip the fabric of spacetime, thus creating a wormhole that would link the two chambers. Since time runs slow for a moving object – according to Einstein’s special theory of relativity – one of the chambers is then sent out on an incredibly fast journey and returned. At either end of the wormhole time would pass at different rates. Anyone falling into one end of the hole would instantaneously be hurled into a past or future time when they emerged from the other end.

The Grandfather Paradox

This is a classic contradiction, and one which has occupied the minds of serious relativist scientists. Some have proposed that there must be a law in nature which prevents time travel and the grandfather_paradoxparadoxes that could ensue because of it. One such incongruity is the “Grandfather Paradox”. If a person travels back in time and kills his grandfather how then could he have been born in order to make the journey into the past? Sceptics see this an assault on common sense, so they argue that there must be a natural law that prevents it. This is the selfsame argument that was aimed at space flight and journeying to the Moon, to name but a few other so-called impossibilities. To discover what might exist in nature to prevent such apparent inconsistencies we need to delve into the world of quantum physics, and the “multiverse” theory.
A multiverse (aka meta-universe) is a theoretical group of universes that comprise all of reality. In an open multiverse, which is infinite, duplication is possible, even limitless identical copies of a given person. This would resolve the paradox. Having killed his grandfather the murderer would travel forward in time, but up a different branch of the multiverse in which he was never born; to a different reality where there is no paradox, because in an adjacent, alternate reality the grandfather is alive, thus allowing for the killer to be born and travel back in time to commit the murder. Each of these parallel worlds may be just as real as our own, all with an alternative history created by every decision ever made. They branch out like the limbs of a tree in every direction.
Another concern for time travellers would be spatial displacement, of which the ghostly legions of Roman soldiers witnessed in York, England, are a prime example. They seem to be walking partially embedded in the ground. This is possibly due to the fact that the ground level during their time, was lower than it is in ours. The same phenomenon is also witnessed when they appear to walk through solid objects such as walls and closed doors, that did not exist in their time. It would seem that the further through time you travel, either backwards or forwards, the worse this displacement becomes. The unwary time traveller could well end up in the middle of a mountain or the bottom of an ocean that didn’t exist in their timeline.
As you can no doubt appreciate, any physical time machine could not, therefore, travel whilst remaining on the ground. They would have to be well away from the surface in order to safely navigate temporally. Travelling through a wormhole in the vast emptiness of space would seem the most logical solution to the problem. Having exited the wormhole’s event horizon into the past, they simply continue on their short journey to the required target.
One would suppose that if future scientists have overcome the problems of time travel they may have visited our present timeline, and those before. Could what we term as “UFOs” actually be time machines and not extraterrestrial spacecraft? If so, what evidence is there to support such a conclusion? It may come as a surprise to many that some potential evidence does exist and can be found in ancient historical records, cave paintings and drawings, as well as archaeological deposits.

Historical Records, Paintings and Artefacts.

Tellingly, ancient historical records seem to show that, apart from a few basic kinds, UFOs have changed little in their appearances and capabilities. If the extraterrestrial hypothesis is to be believed then this should not be the case. We  should see a progressive change in their technology if they inhabit the same timeline as us. If, however, UFOs come from many different future eras and each one is capable of journeying to any point in time in our past we would see the same basic types from one historical era to another. There would be no trace of any technological advancement, as seems to be the case. Written documents of strange objects in the sky are numerous and date back centuries before the first flying machines were ever built and, like their modern-day counterparts, UFOs were a worldwide phenomenon. Descriptions of these curious anomalies bear a striking resemblance to present day UFOs. One of the earliest sightings dates back to ancient Egypt, circa 1504 BCE, and was written during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmose III. It bears an uncanny resemblance to the events that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on June 10, 2004. Even the Bible contains accounts of strange encounters with UFO-like objects, specifically the stories in Ezekiel, and Exodus. Similar stories can also be found in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana ancient Sanskrit texts, dating back to 4,000 BCE.
One of the most extraordinary cave paintings of apparent unidentified aerial phenomena (UAPs) niaux-cave-paintingscomes from Niaux, in the French Pyrenees. It shows two domed UFOs side by side, one of which is apparently giving off a trail of sparks, as is reported in many contemporary sightings. It is estimated that this drawing is around 14,000 years old .This is not an isolated example. There are literally hundreds of images like these throughout the world from disparate cultures, so we cannot simply dismiss them out of hand. Have ancient artists depicted what may be some of the earliest temporal sojourns of the same time travellers we see today in our skies?

Geological Evidence

The Red Mountain fossilised shoe print was discovered by a retired school teacher in Urumqi City, red mountain shoeprintChina, in 1997. It is believed to have been laid down some 200 million years ago. It is clearly the impression of a shoe with a leather sole. By any normal definition this is utterly impossible as, according to anthropological studies, it has been determined that the most modern humans came onto the scene around 200, 000 years ago. Nor is this the only footprint to have been discovered that predates humanity by millions of years. Some prints, particularly the barefooted variety, are that of modern humans (see link): http://www.dinosaurc14ages.com/footprints.htm
It has been postulated that lost human super civilisations may be responsible for these artefacts that span the aeons of time. Whilst it is true that written and physical evidence exists that some advanced human civilisations may have preceded ours, those societies would have existed no more than 100, 000 years ago. The age given for some of these anomalous footprints is 260,000,000 years. This is around the time when the very first reptiles began to appear.
 One of the most incredible finds by far comes from a rock that dates back 500 million years. It was meisterdiscovered within a block of Utah shale. Beneath the shoe cast a squashed trilobite, a small prehistoric marine arthropod, was discovered. It had apparently been crushed by the individual who had walked over it. Trilobites became extinct long before the emergence of even the most primitive ancestors of mankind walked the Earth.
In 1987 palaeontologist Jerry MacDonald found a variety of fossilised tracks laid down in the Permian strata. Among them was the undeniable print of a naked human foot. The Permian strata dates from 290 to 248 million years ago – once again, long before the emergence of man.
Whilst the foregoing anomalies are highly problematic and difficult to come to terms with, especially within the scientific community, there are yet other artifacts that are even more intractable. A short list of these finds follows.
• In 1901 STRAND magazine published an article on the discovery of a coin, dated 1397, found inside a 300 million-year-old coal seam.
• A gold chain, complete with cast, was accidentally discovered in a lump of coal millions of years old when it was dropped before being put onto the fire by a woman from Illinois, USA.
• The discovery of aluminium alloy screws, dated as being 100 million-years-old were also discovered, and the list goes on.
Several books have been written by author and researcher Michael Cremo cataloguing aberrant discoveries made over the last 200 years. He has documented them with eye-witness accounts, original newspaper articles and unaltered photographs. Many of these artifacts are currently gathering dust in the basements of some of the world’s most illustrious natural history museums.
There are several possible answers to this enigma:
• That we have, and still are, being visited by extraterrestrials.
• That our understanding and the history and origins of mankind is completely wrong, and there have been many advanced human societies that had once existed over tens of hundreds of millions of years, but eventually died out.
• Or that we have been visited by time travellers surveying our prehistoric past, leaving behind unintentional evidence of their temporal sojourns.

ET or Future Man?

Since the publication of Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory in 1905, he has always been credited with the concept of time being the “fourth dimension” However, in 1885 the visionary author and science fiction writer H. G. Wells’ book “The Time Machine” was published in which he wrote, “There is no difference between time and any of the three dimensions of space, except that our consciousness moves along it”, thus pre-dating Einstein’s concept by some 10 years.
Grey_Alien4This iconic figure with its bulbous head and spindly body, is what ufologists term as a “Grey alien”, which they believe comes from the Pleiades star system. Compare that with an artist’s depiction of how Wells thought a future man might look after 1,000,000 years of evolutionary changes in his 1893 article “The Man of the Year Million”. There are some interesting and thought provoking similarities.
Might Wells have been closer to the truth, regarding the Greys’ terrestrial origins? Anatomically, they are as close to humans as it is possible to get. Moreover, they even speak the same languages as man-year-millionwe do. They even appear to act and think as we do. For some ufologists and scientists this flies in the face of reason. A truly alien species, they believe, would be nothing like us anatomically, or culturally, because their evolutionary paths would be entirely different to that of our own. If we apply the time travel hypothesis, however, these apparent inconsistencies suddenly make some kind of sense.
Currently, the UFO fraternity are buzzing about time travel, due in no small part to the revelations of James Penniston. For those not in the know, Penniston was an Air Force Staff Sergeant at a joint USAF/RAF base at Bentwaters in the UK. He, and others, encountered a triangular craft outside the base in Rendlesham Forest on December 26 1980. Penniston was the only member of the team to actually touch the object which contained strange symbols. Sometime in 1993 he underwent a regression hypnotherapy session in which he revealed receiving telepathic communication from the landed craft which informed him that the occupants were from Earth’s future, and that they were gathering genetic material to help them survive. The Rendlesham Forest Incident has become one of the best documented UFO sightings in the history of ufology, surpassing that of the Roswell Incident.
Though science isn’t perfect, its exponential growth over the last hundred years or so has made what was once considered unachievable possible. The aspiration of powered flight was believed to be unattainable not so very long ago. However, in that short space of time we have not only attained it but have travelled to the Moon and back, and have even sent spacecraft out beyond the confines of our solar system. Given another million years of evolution who’s to say what can or cannot be achieved? It may well be that we are perhaps witnessing the future fruits and attainments of our progenitors’ scientific accomplishments as they traverse the barriers of space and time, leaving in their wake tantalising clues of their temporal journeys. The evidence certainly seems to hint at it.

09/07/16 update:


© David Calvert 2015

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