Ancient Astronauts: Facts and Fictions.


by David Calvert

According to the Ancient Aliens hypothesists and proponents, the ancient texts of Sumeria describe beings descending from the sky called the Annunaki. The term ‘Annunaki’ they will tell you means ‘those who from the heavens came.’

This is entirely wrong. The word Annunaki means ‘princely seed’ or ‘princely blood’. The idea is that the Annunaki were direct creations of Anu, who was regarded as the father and king of the gods.

As we will see, this is the main idea associated with the Annunaki in the minds of Sumerians, that is that they were directly created by Anu, and so it makes sense that even their name reflects this idea, that is that they were the offspring of the prince.

The term itself means ‘of royal seed’ or ‘princely seed’, because the annunaki were considered the offspring of Anu, or An, the great God of heaven. The annunaki were also the offspring of An and his consort ‘Ki’ of heaven and earth. There was this divine coupling in the way the Mesopotamians conceived their pantheon.

So, if the term Annunaki means ‘princely’ seed, or ‘offspring of the prince’, how is it that the Ancient Alien theorists say that the word for Annunaki means those who from the heavens to earth came?

The short answer is that everything Ancient Alien hypothesists say about the Annunaki comes from a man named Zecharia Sitchin. Sitchin wrote many books claiming that the Annunaki were really aliens. Unfortunately, at the time that he wrote this in the 70’s, there weren’t many ways for ordinary people to see if what he was saying was true or not.

To put it simply Sitchin’s translation of the word Annunaki is wrong.

Sitchin claimed to be an expert on Sumerian writings, yet we can now see that he didn’t seem to even understand the basic grammar and vocabulary rules of the Sumerian language. Several real scholars challenged him on his translations, and on his lack of any academic credentials in the field, pointing out that there is no record of Sitchin having anything but a journalism degree.

As we progress and look into some of the specifics of Sitchin’s views articulated by the Ancient Alien believers, I think you will see that determining the truth about this difficult subject is not out of the hands of the common person.

It says, word for word, that these beings ‘descended in flying vehicles from the sky’.

This is a preposterous statement. I challenge anyone to produce this word for word text.

You can do a search online, and literally see all the references to the word Annunaki in the Sumerian texts. The only time it refers to anything even close to this is when it talks about the Annunaki being direct creations of Anu in heaven. A few examples of this are:

The Anunna, the (gods), whom An conceived in the sky.

The Anunna, whom An in the sky conceived.

These texts emphasize the point that the main Sumerian concept regarding the Annunaki was that they were directly created by An; that’s what’s being said here.

The idea that the text says that they ‘descended out of flying vehicles’ is pure fiction.

The proponents of the Ancient Astronaut Theory are basing their belief system on a falsehood. Moreover, the archaeological evidence they put forward as proof of the Annunaki’s superior technology is also deceptive.

The theory just doesn’t fit in with the archaeological evidence of the time period, and is replete with incorrect assertions and dubious claims.

This is a common ploy among cranks and self-appointed challengers of science. They spout off a series of misinterpretations and falsehoods to hide the truth underneath an avalanche of falsehoods and distortions. Most of the followers who are drawn into this web of deceit accept without question that what they are told is true, and don’t even bother to check out the so-called “facts”.

Below is a list of falsehoods put forward by the Ancient Astronaut proponents:

  • The dinosaurs were wiped out by aliens to make way for mankind’s eventual domination of the Earth.

The various ancient alien hypothesists do little more than assert that such an event must have taken place.  They provide no actual evidence for their claims. Instead, they borrow evidence from fundamentalist Christians, who are never actually identified as such.

So, if ancient aliens weren’t responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs, then who or what was?

In the 1980s, father-and-son scientists Luis and Walter Alvarez discovered in the geological record a distinct layer of iridium–an element found in abundance only in space–that corresponds to the precise time the dinosaurs died. This suggests that a comet, asteroid or meteor impact event may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. In the 1990s, scientists located the massive Chicxulub Crater at the tip of Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula, which dates to the period in question.

There are also several other competing scientific theories to account for the extinction period – none of which involve aliens.

I was once a proponent of the ancient astronaut theory in my youth. This was a time when Eric von Daniken’s books, Chariots of the Gods, and others, were being widely publicised. In 1976 however, a Sceptical Inquirer article showed that the book was flawed. By 1997, in a BBC-PBS production, the book had been debunked. The episode refuted the following claims:

  • An image of an ancient astronaut was carved on a Mayan sarcophagus.

The design below does not represent an ancient alien in some kind of cockpit, as Däniken, et al would have us believe. What it actually shows is the iconographic figure of the Mayan ruler Pacal the Great of Palenque. The iconography and accompanying Maya text identifies it as a portrait of the ruler himself with the World Tree of Maya mythology.

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  • The Nazca Lines in Chile were originally an ancient-astronaut spaceport.

There are various plausible theories as to what the Nazca lines truly represent. What they aren’t are ancient ‘spaceports’. It stands to reason that if we had been visited by ETs in our ancient history, with their vastly superior technology, they wouldn’t require what look like modern day runways to land. The idea is absurd in the extreme. One only has to research the incredible capabilities of UFOs in present-day sightings to reach that conclusion. The lines were actually made in the ground by removing the reddish pebbles to uncover the whitish/grey ground beneath. Scholars differ in the interpretation the purpose of the designs but, in general, they ascribe religious significance to them. Because of its isolation and the dry, windless, stable climate of the plateau, the lines have been relatively naturally preserved.


  • Where did the Ancient Mayans get their advanced knowledge of the stars from?

The first functional telescopes of the modern era were invented in the Netherlands at the beginning of the 17th century. The knowledge of lenses however dates much further back in time, as attested to by numerous ancient lenses, from disparate civilisations, that have been discovered by archaeologists. They were crude by modern-day standards. From these discoveries, we learnt that ancients possessed telescopes. Given that they were crude in design, tells us they weren’t created by a superior intellect. These were created by human ingenuity, and have no connection to extra-terrestrials. The ancient Peruvians were also excellent astronomers.

  • Another of their claims is that ancient astronauts built the pyramids in Egypt.

There is no evidence whatsoever to the notion that the pyramids were constructed by extra-terrestrials. Once again, we are confronted by the biased speculation that they could only have been constructed by a super intelligent race of space-faring aliens. However, this is far from true, as is the idea that they were built using slave labour. Graffiti discovered inside the Giza monuments themselves paint an entirely different picture.

Recently, Egyptologist Mark Lehner, an associate of Harvard’s Semitic Museum, found the city of the real pyramid builders. He began drawing on diverse strands of evidence from geological history, to analysis of living arrangements, bread-making technology, and animal remains, that offer up an entirely different perspective to that of the Ancient Astronaut hypothesists, and one which is far more credible.

More evidence began to crop up when Faunal analyst Richard Redding, of the University of Michigan Museum of Natural History, identified tremendous quantities of cattle, sheep, and goat bone, sufficient to feed several thousand people, even if they ate meat every day. Much of the cattle bone evidence showed that they were under two years of age when slaughtered. He was astounded by the sheer volume of cattle bone evidence he was finding. He identified that much of the bones came from cattle under two years of age. Here was evidence of many people—presumably not slaves or common labourers, but skilled workers—feasting on prime beef, the best meat available. Remains of the labourers were also unearthed, and they bore injuries consistent with their trade.

So, there we have it, solid evidence that the pyramids were built by human artisans. There is much more evidence to support that the Egyptians erected the pyramids. It can be found in the link provided below.


The End Game?

Why, despite all the evidence, including an impressive number of first-hand witness reports world-wide, does there still appear to be an official conspiracy to hide the truth about UFOs and their extraterrestrial origins from the public?    By David Calvert

On December 17th, 1969, the United States Air Force (USAF), along with Project Blue Book, officially ceased investigations into UFOs. However, thanks largely to the 1974 Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) official documents from the US military, the NSA, FBI and CIA are gradually being released into the public domain showing, unequivocally, their continued interest into the phenomenon.
Despite governmental assurances to the contrary, proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) believe it to be the tip of a conspiratorial iceberg to hide from the public the truth about UFOs and their extraterrestrial origins. for Dr Steven Greer, founder of the Center for the study of extraterrestrial Intelligence (CSETI), an accounting is long overdue.
The CSETI group convened a meeting involving delegates from 30 congressional offices and several first-hand government witnesses to UFO/ET events. The groundbreaking gathering took place at the National Press Club in Washington DC on May 9th, 2001. Here, Dr Greer urged the congressional attendees to ‘move forward on this subject through open hearings leading to a full public disclosure’.
Many of the 100-plus witnesses who are prepared to testify to Congress require protection from their government, or a subpoena to give their evidence. To this end the disclosure group asked for a Presidential Executive Order to protect its witnesses from what is essentially a violation of their security oaths.
American-born lawyer Peter Gersten, the founder of Citizens Against UFO Security (CAUS) who was responsible for the release of more than 900 pages of UFO related documents from the CIA in 1979, foresees problems with this approach as the military will undoubtedly question Congress’s right to grant immunity. They would then have to fight it out in the courts, a time-consuming process that would take years.
His thoughts on the US Congress holding open hearings are equally pessimistic. In a public interview for the X Factor magazine in 1999 (issue 74) he said, ‘Congressional hearings have been tried several times in the past and they haven’t worked for several reasons. The elected officials of Congress are only elected for two to maybe eight years, and are always vulnerable to the demands of pressure groups. Also, the idea of open hearings is inherently ridiculous because any discussion of UFOs  involves a discussion of advanced technology, an area kept secret by the military using national security, or by the corporations who protect their developments using patents.’

The Disclosure Project

The Disclosure Project has identified over 400 witnesses, world-wide. They come from every branch of the armed services and other agencies, including the UK. Over 100 of them have been video-taped and 70 transcribed into edited testimony.
The list boasts an impressive body of witnesses including John Callahan – retired Division Chief for the Accidents Evaluation and Investigative division of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). He testified that he conducted a meeting with members of President Reagan’s scientific staff, the CIA, FBI and various others concerning a radar-visual UFO sighting.
After viewing the material it was handed over to Reagan’s staff and all present were sworn to secrecy by the CIA.  Fortunately, the Division Chief had already made a copy of the original video of what the pilot and controller had seen on the scope. Callahan now offers this as supporting evidence of his case.
Lt Col Charles L. Brown, USAF (ret), claimed he analysed UFO reports for the Air Force’s Office of Special Investigations (OSI), many of which came from reputable sources. He has since become a firm believer in the extraterrestrial hypothesis.
Dan Willis of the United States Navy who held a top secret, crypto level-14 extra sensitive material-handling security clearance, stated that in 1969 he got a priority message from a ship near Alaska. The report spoke of a reddish/orange glowing object, about 70ft in diameter emerging out of the water and shooting off into space at an incredible speed. The event was tracked on radar and substantiated.
Former Philco Ford Aerospace employee Donna Hare testified that she was acquainted with someone who was quarantined with the Apollo II astronauts. During this time they allegedly told her friend they had witnessed ‘craft on the moon’ when they landed.
Then there is the testimony of former security specialist Larry Warren who, in December 1980, witnessed the bizarre events that took place in Rendlesham Forest and around the Air Force base at RAF Bentwaters’ NATO Air Force facilities in Suffolk, East Anglia. He claims to have witnessed grounded and aerial objects making incursions into their air space over a three-night period. Moreover, he further stated that some of these objects fired ‘pencil-thin beams of light’ into the weapons storage area.

Monumental task

In preparing the Briefing Document Dr Greer undertook a monumental task. By late December 2000 he began the selection and editing of over 120 hours of raw digital video testimony. By late February 2001 he had reduced it to 33 hours of select testimony and the 18 hours of ‘super select testimony.’  These were dubbed into audio tape and transcribed. The result: roughly 1200 pages of testimony transcript.  He worked an incredible 18 hours a day, seven days a week, to edit the transcripts into a readable form for the Briefing Document.
A 100-page ‘Executive Summary of the Disclosure Briefing Document’ was made available to the press, as was the more voluminous ‘Disclosure Briefing Document’ which was prepared and made available by Dr Greer and Theodore C. Loder III, PhD, for the US Government, its scientific community and the world’s media. To appreciate how powerful a document this truly is the reader is referred to the information panel sites given at the conclusion of this article.
Mark Hall, a Newcastle-based UFO researcher and official representative  for UFO Magazine (UK), was the only Briton to attend the event. He came away, as did many others, with the opinion that what he had seen and heard was some of the most significant UFO evidence ever presented.
‘I have carried this burden for eight years and I’m now giving it to you, the American people and the people of the world, to take it forward.’  One cannot help but feel that those words, spoken by Dr Greer in his closing summary, may well prove overly optimistic.
History has already shown us the political attitude adopted by governments concerning the UFO phenomenon, and one can only speculate as to what the world’s media will make of it. All too often their coverage of UFO events has been somewhat tongue-in-cheek , appearing uncertain as to whether they should take such stories seriously.
In addition, Washington Post reporter Carl Bernstein – famous for the Watergate exposè – claimed in 1977 that the CIA was involved in a media subversion programme and had infiltrated every major news outlet both at home and abroad. If there is any veracity to his allegations (and the absence of any coverage by the media in the UK concerning this historical meeting appears to confirm this view), then the decades-old war of  attrition seems set to continue.
That Dr Greer and others have put their professional reputations on the line and have much to lose in terms of their credibility and prestige cannot be overstated. They have weathered the cabals of those shadowy agencies who, under the guise of national security, have purportedly withheld the truth from the world’s populace. They have suffered the scorn and ridicule of ill-informed skeptics and debunkers who still maintain that it would be remarkable for the US Government to keep such an incredible secret, despite historical precedents that show otherwise.
What of the Manhattan Project, which was responsible for the development of the first atomic bomb at a cost of $20 million in today’s money and involved more than 50,000 people? Or the breaking of the German and Japanese codes during World War II, involving more than 10,000 individuals? Sceptics are either woefully ignorant of these facts or are suffering from what can be best described as selective amnesia.
The UFO subject has attracted more than its fair share of cranks and fraudsters in its chequered past. Their extravagant and outlandish claims have done little to persuade the scientific community that it is an area worthy of study.
In accepting the notion that all like tales are equally as fanciful scientists have largely rejected the phenomenon. More, they have conducted no serious investigations or observations and experiments, nor validation of hypotheses through such.
Certainly, the Disclosure witnesses are who they claim to be. Their credentials are impeccable and they may well have been first-hand witnesses to some of the most consequential events in human history.
Authors Note: The above article was written and published in 2001. Since that time Larry Warren’s claims have been proven fraudulent.

An Historical Perspective on UFOs.

Spirit of the Age.

David Calvert.

It is now largely accepted that UFOs are real. Throughout antiquity their presence among us has been recorded, in one form or another. What they represent however still remains a matter of great contention.
Ancient man often saw these unusual flying objects as a purely supernatural phenomenon, attributing them to their respective deities, as the biblical prophet Ezekiel did. These early struggles to understand the bewildering UFO phenomenon and close encounters with them might well have given birth to many religious beliefs and the metaphysical ‘gods’ of old.
The Dogon tribe of West Africa are, perhaps, unique in this respect. They contend they are the descendants of a race of space travellers known as the ‘Nommo’, who landed in ‘arks’ long ago. Their story is detailed and analysed by Robert K.G. Temple in his book The Sirius Mystery, but no irrefutable conclusions are reached.
From the 8th century and on into Medieval times, ‘Fiery dragons’ and ‘flying crosses’ were seen in the skies of Europe, reflecting the myths and religious beliefs of the times; the latter being reported by a 16th Century student in sacred writings.
The tone of reports in the ‘Age of Reason’ (late 17th to 18th Century) began to change however, as rigorous scientific observation was called upon to explain the bizarre aerial phenomena of the era. One such account, concerning an object seen over England in 1731, then in Ireland and Romania, where it stayed stationary for 2 hrs  before splitting in two and rejoining again and heading off towards the west, was viewed by the Romanians as a ‘sign’. In England it was explained away as a ‘meteor’, seemingly ignoring the fact that it emitted intense light beams, which moved slowly for a while then stopped. One English  observer reportedly claimed that it became so hot he was forced to take his shirt off, despite it being the dead of winter.
As human technology progressed by leaps and bounds in the late 19th and 20th Century, so too did the technological advancements employed by UFOs. Curiously, they always seemed to be one jump ahead of human achievements. The mysterious ‘airships’ of  1896 – 97 and the ‘ghost rockets’ of 1946 were ultimately superseded by the ‘flying disk’. Their unusual configuration and incredible maneuvers, coupled with the popular belief that space travel was within humanity’s grasp, gave birth to the extraterrestrial hypothesis. Despite our ingenuity, we are still, apparently, unable to manufacture an airworthy flying disk with the maneuverable capabilities of  a UFO. Some have tried, but ultimately failed.  Many however believe that, through ‘black budget’ projects in the US, this goal has been achieved.
To date, there are many theories to explain UFOs. Below is a short list of competing hypotheses:
* Extraterrestrial Hypothesis. The visitation of highly intelligent lifeforms from other worlds.
Alien cohabitants. The theory that we are perhaps already sharing the Earth with an alien race or races.
* Earth lights Hypothesis.  That UFOs are created by little-understood geological processes, like those of the San Andreas fault in California.
* Other Dimensions.  The most difficult of explanations for UFOs, involving an unlikely combination of quantum mechanics, relativity and cosmology. In brief, it deals with intrusions by UFOs from a parallel universe.
*Psychic Intrusions. The hypothesis that close encounters are not materially real and have been planted in the mind of a subject by an external agency. However, this theory cannot account for all UFO sightings.
It is evident from the foregoing that the cultural tracking and scientific achievements of the modern age have impacted on our rationale (which seem to border on the absurd at times), altering our perceptions of UFOs. That the seemingly absurd nature of the UFO phenomenon itself would initiate a centuries-long search for the truth is, perhaps, somewhat ironic.


A Strange History.

A Strange History.

David Calvert

‘Time will reveal everything. It is a babbler, and speaks even when not asked.’

(Euripides. Ancient Greek dramatist)
Certainly, it has revealed, in part, a human history replete with strange sights in the skies, powerful beings, and age-old artifacts that cast doubt on our understanding of 
archaeological, scientific and historical perspectives.
Though we should, perhaps, view these aberrances with a healthy dose of scepticism, it would be wise not to ignore them out of hand. Long before the advent of the written word, prehistoric man depicted scenes of everyday life through literal drawings or paintings. One such cave painting (circa 2000 BCE) discovered between the border of Russia and China is one such artifact.
But what had its originator witnessed that caused him to paint images of what, to all intents and purposes, are a space suited entity standing beneath a saucer-shaped UFO emitting a plume of smoke from its underbellywhile in 
the foreground stands another entity holding what appears to be a disc-shaped device. How do we square such imagery with orthodox science? Is it remotely possible for a prehistoric man to depict a scene of a modern-day phenomenon by chance alone, or is the image evidence of the archetypal phenomenon Carl Gustav Jung wrote of in his 1959 book. Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth Of Things Seen In The Sky?
His theory states that when a UFO (in its literal sense) manifests itself, its imagery is such that it stimulates powerful unconscious mental processes in the mind of the witness. These unconscious processes, in turn, are released into the conscious mind of the 
observer causing them to give meaning to what they have seen. Cultural and personal 
expectations colour the interpretation of the sighting. The projected meaning is then 
passed on, ad infinitum, to others and is perpetuated and strengthened over time. 
Our ancestral ‘gods’ are no longer in vogue, however, and have been replaced by icons befitting a technologically advanced and sophisticated society.
The Hieroglyphs of Thutmose III.
Hieroglyphics are one of the earliest known forms of writing and here, too, there are
disconcerting and troublesome anomalies. The papyrus text of Pharaoh Thutmose III (1504 – 1450 BCE), found among the papers of a director of the Vatican’s Egyptian 
museum, recorded aerial phenomena reminiscent to that of the Mexican UFO wave of the 1990s. This is considered to be the first sighting on record:
It began with “… a circle of fire coming in the sky …it had no head (not a comet), the breath of its mouth had a foul odour. Its body was one rod (5 m) long and one rod wide. It had no voice.” After some days, the UFOs began to multiply, becoming …“more numerous in the 
sky than ever.” They extended to …“the limits of the four supports of the heavens.” 
Eventually, they climbed high and headed south. 
While it is possible that some form of hysterical contagion was responsible for the 
sighting there are, nevertheless, curious aspects to these UFOs that are noteworthy: their  bright circular appearance, their peculiar smell and their silent manoeuvres seem to mirror contemporary UFO accounts.
Alexander’s Flying Shields.
Occasionally, UFOs are seen to take a hand in human affairs. No lesser personage than greek_alexander_the_greatAlexander the Great was allegedly aided in his conquest of the besieged city of Tyre by five “flying shields”, moving in a
triangular formation. The year was 322 BCE. The largest of the circling UFOs suddenly shot a beam of light at the city wall, breaching its defenses. Alexander’s army then poured into the city whilst the UFOs hovered overhead.When the citadel was secured, they flew off.
Personal research, however, has cast doubt on the authenticity of these events and reflects on the credibility of an earlier account Alexander was supposed to have had with UFOs at Jaxartes, India. In his work ‘Anabasis of Alexander‘, the second century Greek historian, Flavius Arrianus, attributes the city’s downfall to an intricate siege work that made it possible for Alexander’s army to scale the 150 ft high walls, with not a “flying shield” in sight.
Ezekiel’s “Wheels.”
Even the Bible is not spared the Ancient Astronaut Hypothesis. The story of Ezekiel’s 
wheel (595 BCE) has become a testament to its proponents of things extraterrestrial. It is one of the most controversial theories in ufological circles. Here the biblical prophet portrays a craft that NASA scientist, Joseph F Blumrich claims we are all familiar with. Even allowing for some variation in Blumrich’s design, other commentators agree that Ezekiel’s description is that of a helicopter-like craft, consisting of a capsule supported on four legs, each containing helicopter units having folding rotors and retractable wheels.‘Might Ezekiel’s description of the “living creatures” with four faces and four 
wings be his way of describing the legs and the four rotor units?’ Blumrich asks. 
The explanation seems plausible when one considers the primitive culture Ezekiel 
sprang from, and his limited vocabulary when faced with such an apparent super 
technology. He might very well have interpreted it in the only way he knew – as God. 
What is more, if the provenance of a helicopter hieroglyph and other astounding images discovered in the ancient temple of Seti I is proven to be true, then it would certainly seem that such technology existed over 3000 years ago. One might suppose, given all this alleged superior technology, that something other than cave drawings and ancient texts survived the ravages of time; some tangible ‘nuts and bolts’ evidence of the otherworldly intellects believed to have coexisted with man.
The Earliest Know Battery.
The 2000-year-old Baghdad battery was discovered by archaeologists in Iraq in 1936. But is it evidence of extraterrestrial know-how, or just simply the remnant of a long lost human civilisation, whose greatness rivaled and exceeded that of our own? The battery consists of all the components that go to make up a working battery cell and when 
researchers made up a replica of it, substituting battery acid for fruit juice, it produced a half volt of electricity, enough power to coat artifacts with silver or gold, a technique 
known to us today as electroplating. Such a discovery points to a knowledge and advanced technology being in place millennia before the Italian physicist Alessandra 
Volta (1745-1827) invented the first modern battery in 1800.
Charting the Heavens.
Parts of what is believed to be an early astrolabe (a device that is used to measure the 
altitudes of planets and stars)were recovered from a shipwreck in the eastern 
Mediterranean at the turn of the 20th century. Inscriptions on its workings dated it at 
around 80 BCE. Known as the Antikythera Mechanism, it was X-radio-graphed in 1971 
and it revealed a remarkably sophisticated internal arrangement of dials, gears and 
graded plates.
Following an in-depth study of this unique instrument and its mechanisms, Professor Derek de Solla Price concluded that it must have been some form of computing device for studying the movements of the Sun, Moon, and planets. Whatever its function, it is a technology far in advance of its time. 
Babylonian priests possessed knowledge of Jupiter’s four largest moons, the phases of Venus and seven satellites belonging to Saturn, long before Galileo (1564-1642) invented the telescope and made astronomical observations, finally establishing the Copernican theory of the universe.
Age of Enlightenment.
Even today, Homo sapiens are still divided on the origins of mankind. About half believe in the Darwinian theory of evolution, in which no intelligent intervention is required, while the other half believe that some form of intelligence was necessary. Those holding the latter view are split into factions: a) the creationists who see God as the source of all life and b), the astrogenecists, who see humanity as the product of an extraterrestrial experiment.
The concept of extraterrestrial life is now one of the most persevering themes of western civilisation, yet strangely its roots date back to at least the ancient Greeks. Pre-1980s historians largely ignored it because they thought it did not constitute science or have any intellectually respected history
In 1977 Steven J. Dick, an astronomer and historian of science at the US Naval 

Observatory wrote, The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of Science. The debate’s history offers numerous and timely lessons about the nature of evidence and inference. Dick has a BS in Astrophysics, and an MA and PhD in History and Philosophy of Science from Indiana University

However we interpret them, these and other anomalies have been with us since the earliest times. Only now are some beginning to seriously question their provenance. 
labelling them as oddities, fanciful anecdotes, quirks, and hoaxes, simply because they challenge our worldview of history, is unscientific. To ignore them is to deny our heritage– whatever that might ultimately prove to be.
 White, Michael (1997): The X Factor, issue 12, Marshall Cavendish Partworks Ltd.
Brookesmith, Peter (1995): UFO: The Complete Sightings Catalogue, BCA.
Story, Ronald D (ed.) (2002): The Mammoth Encyclopedia of Extraterrestrial Encounters, Constable & Robinson Ltd.
Blumrich, Joseph F (1974): The Spaceships of Ezekiel, Bantam.
Watson, William H (March/April 1999): UFO Magazine, Quest Publications International Ltd.
Alford, Alan F (September/October 1997): UFO Magazine, Quest Publications International Ltd.

Externalised Thought Forms.

The Tulpa

tulpa 1

These types of alleged entities are known by various names, such as the one above. As the blog title would imply, they are internally generated thoughts which have been externalised into the physical world. The Tulpa in mysticism is an entity which is created through sheer spiritual or mental discipline. In Indian Buddhist texts it is defined as any unreal, illusory or mentally created apparition. In black magic they are  referred to as ‘Fetches’ and are used as a vehicle for the practitioner’s consciousness, usually in a form that is designed to  terrify the victim  at whom it is directed. This type of projected thought form bears a close relationship to astral projection.
The derivation of the word ‘fetch’ is unknown, but it may have some connection with  fetish since it is something ‘made’ or ‘created’ by the magician.
The term ‘tulpa’ is used in the works of Alexandra David-Néel, a Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist and Buddhist, who observed these practices in 20th century Tibet. He wrote that ‘An accomplished Bodhisattva is capable of effecting ten kinds of magic creations. The power of producing magic formations, tulkus or less lasting and materialized tulpas does not, however, belong exclusively to such mystic exalted beings. Any human, divine or demonic being may be possessed of it. The only difference comes from the degree of power, and this depends on the strength of the concentration and the quality of the mind itself.’
According to David-Néel’s writings  the tulpa has the ability to develop a mind of its own and will seek to free itself from its creator’s control and take on a life of its own. He goes on to say that he, himself, had created a tulpa which later developed a life of its own and had to be destroyed. The alleged materialised thought form (a monk)  was apparently witnessed by others

 Imaginary Friends

‘Imaginary friends are a psychological and social phenomenon where a friendship or other interpersonal relationship takes place in the imagination rather than external physical reality’
imaginary friend.
Assuming, for the sake of argument, that there is some truth regarding projected thought forms, one can only imagine the ensuing chaos presented by them were we capable of conjuring up such entities. It is perhaps fortunate that It takes a disciplined mind and years of practice to create such and entity. What autonomous monstrosities, one wonders, could the fertile  imagination of a child or a serial killer conjure up and unleash upon the world.
To date, however,  there is no verifiable empirical evidence to support the existence of these so-called ‘sentient’ entities. However, this does not deter certain on-line factions of the community from  insisting that they are real. At best, their evidence is anecdotal and doesn’t lend credence to the existence of tulpas. 
Chidambaram Ramesh, an Indian author and researcher, has mentioned in his book “Thought Forms and Hallucinations” that the creation of thought forms and other mental entities like Tulpas etc., is the result of holographic mind processing.  He works to rediscover scientifically influential ideas from ancient texts and time periods that have been largely forgotten by present day society, and examines these theories within the realm of contemporary science.

Tulpas: Real or Imagined?

If  Alexander David-Néel is to be believed it would appear they are real; given that he asserts his tulpa was witnessed by others. Herein lies a paradox. According to the literature on the subject, perceiving the tulpa visually is initially done internally. At the early stages, it may be hard for one to visualize a stable form mentally and it may lack detail or flicker and fragment. Visualization is a skill that is developed through persistent use which is commonly referred to as “forcing.” As time goes on, the tulpa’s form will manifest as a stronger internal or external hallucination, [my emphasis] gaining stability in integrity, and a perceived increase of detail and substance.
The relevant word here ishallucination, of which there are many types. This expression crops up consistently in forums concerning the nature of tulpas.
So far we have learnt that tulpas are a mental construction which can apparently act independently of, and parallel to, the practitioners consciousness. They are capable of independent thought and, according to some, have their own free will, emotions, and memories.  In short, a tulpa is a sentient entity living inside the head of its creator, yet separate from him/her. To this author’s way of thinking this hardly constitutes true independence and free will.

Memories and Emotions.



From an information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:
  • Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information
  • Storage: the creation of a permanent record of the encoded information in short or long term memory.
  • Retrieval: the encoding of information requires a physical medium on which to store it. Since tulpas are not a physical medium how then is the information stored to be retrieved later as memories?
In popular culture the concept of tulpas is widespread and can also be found in fictional literature and films, to which I will add my own. They are:
  • Tulpa (2012 movie)
  • The Babadook (book) 
  • Inside Out (movie)
  • Legion (novellas)
  • The Fetch (a short story from my book ‘Strange Dominions’.)
  • In Your Eyes (2014 movie)
  • Harvey (1950 movie)
                                                           © David Calvert 2016

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Gravitational Anomalies



 levitation. : the act or process of levitating; especially : the rising or lifting of a person or thing by means held to be supernatural.
Of all magicians’ acts, the levitation/illusion trick is perhaps the most spellbinding and has enthralled audiences throughout the world since it was first performed. Of course, we’re all aware that it is a trick whose secrets are jealously guarded by those performing them. We know there is no supernatural intermediary  involved in the feat. After all, no one can overcome Newton’s law of universal gravitation. It is a constant that holds us to our world. Without it we would drift off into space.
It is a widely held misconception, however, that gravity is the “strongest force”. The truth is  that when matched against the electromagnetic so-called “weak force” it is easily beaten. Here are the forces in order from strongest to weakest:
  1. The strong nuclear force.
  2. The electromagnetic force.
  3. The weak nuclear force.
  4. Gravity.
Yes, a simple magnet can pick up paperclips from a desktop, thus demonstrating the relative weakness of gravity. However, for complex and diverse reasons, it can’t account for involuntary  human levitation. To the best of this author’s knowledge no serious study has ever been conducted by the scientific community into the human levitation phenomenon. More on that later.
Levitation, according to some, is a  psychokinetic phenomenon in which animals, people, and objects are lifted into the air. Lets take a look at what I reason to be one of the best historical examples of human levitation.

Joseph of Copertino (b. Giuseppe Maria Desa).

As a child, Joseph had experiences of ecstatic visions that continued throughout the remainder of his life. In 1620 he was accepted as a lay brother of the Capuchin friars, but was shortly thereafter dismissed as his continued ecstasies made him unfit for his duties.
On returning home, much to the scorn of his family, he pleaded with the Conventual friars near Copertino to serve in their stables, which he did for several years. The friars were so impressed with his devotion and the simplicity of his life that he was admitted to their Order. In 1628 he became an ordained Catholic priest and was sent to the  Shrine of the Madonna della Grazia , spending the next 15 years there.
It was during his time there that the occasions of his ecstasy began to multiply. Whilst participating at a Mass and also joining the community for the Liturgy of the Hours he began to levitate, gaining a widespread reputation of holiness. He was eventually deemed disruptive by his religious superiors and Church authorities and was confined to a small cell.
The worst was yet to come, when he was ultimately denounced to the Inquisition, as a result of which he ended up under the supervision of the Capuchin friars, where he practiced a severe asceticism for the next 35 years.
As the phenomenon of flying or levitation was widely believed to be connected with witchcraft, Joseph was denounced to the   Inquisition. At their command, he was transferred from one Franciscan friary in the region to another for observation, first to Assisi (1639–53), then briefly to Pietrarubbia and finally Fossombrone where he lived with, and under the supervision of, the Capuchin friars. There – as we have learnt – he practiced a severe  asceticism , usually eating solid food only twice a week.  In 1657 he was eventually packed off to a Conventual community, and shortly thereafter he died.

Why do I think this case may be genuine?

  1. Joseph had ecstatic visions throughout his entire life. Religious ecstasy is a type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional  euphoria. Is it possible these interminable altered states were a prelude and/or causal factor in his acts of  levitation? We may never know. Certainly, the dissociation caused by Joseph’s practice of fasting may be a determining factor, insofar as they would lead  inexorably toward an altered state of consciousness (ASC).
  2. There is no evidence whatsoever that would suggest Joseph had the intelligence or skills to perform tricks of this magnitude. On the contrary, he was noted as being a “dullard” by all who  knew him.
  3. We have read how his life was turned upside down by his euphoric visions and gravity defying episodes, the latter of which totalled 70. Even his own family scorned him. Despite this, the phenomenon continued to dominate his life, unabated.
  4. The most overpowering proof that his levitation was genuine was when he was brought before the Inquisition. As some readers may be aware, flying or levitating was widely believed to be connected to witchcraft for which the penalty was invariably an agonising death. Why would he deliberately put himself in such an unenviable and life threatening position for the sake of a few magic/illusionist tricks?
  5. On the matter of the Inquisition, nothing could be proved against Joseph. It is conceivable that his inquisitors doubted whether it was safe to allow him – given his apparent supernatural powers – back into the community. After all they weren’t certain of their provenance, be it God or the Devil. At some point in his trial a decision seems to have been made to send this completely humble man, who was said to be embarrassed by his abilities, to the Capuchin convent where he spent the remainder of his life in strict seclusion.
I realise of course that some of my above speculations are somewhat contentious, as there is no solid evidence to support the idea that ASCs, per se, can bring about gravity defying phenomena. I do however think that they may have been the catalyst for his other alleged abilities that included mental telepathy (the supposed communication of thoughts or ideas by means other than the known senses) and Precognition (foreknowledge of an event, especially as a form of extrasensory perception) . Of course, ASCs can’t account for levitation in animals and inert objects. There must be an external force/catalyst at work.
Other cases of human levitation include:
  • Saint Francis of Assisi who is recorded as having been “suspended above the earth, often to a height of three, and often to a height of four cubits” (about 1.3 to 1.8 meters).
  • Girolamo Savonarola, sentenced to death, allegedly rose off the floor of his cell into midair and remained there for some time.
  • Seraphim of Sarov (1759–1833) Russian Orthodox saint had a gift to levitate over the ground for some time. This was witnessed by many educated people of his time, including the emperor Alexander I. A young paralyzed man brought into his cell saw Seraphim raised from the ground during a fervent prayer. Likewise, four Diveyevo sisters saw him walking above the grass lifted up from the air.
  • Clara Germana Cele, a young South African girl, in 1906 reportedly levitated in a rigid position. The effect was apparently only reversed by the application of Holy water, leading to the belief that it was caused by demonic possession.
  • Mariam Baouardy “little Arab” (1846-1878), a Carmelite nun, who died in Bethlehem in 1878, and frequently experienced ecstasies, was seen levitating more than once by others: for example, in the garden of the monastery during times of private prayer, when living in the Carmelite monastery at Pau, in France.
From the foregoing one might conclude that such occurrences are prevalent in those of a religious disposition. Not so. There are many levitation cases involving people from within secular communities.  In the following section we will deal with levitation from an advanced technology perspective.

UAPs and Gravity Anomalies.

220px-PurportedUFO2What is a UAP? The acronym stands for ‘Unidentified Aerial Phenomena’ and is used in conjunction with the much older term UFO (Unidentified Flying Object). The latter acronym was first employed  in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF) to serve as a catch-all for all flying saucer/flying disc reports. The term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s up to the present day and was first used in technical literature, then later in popular use. In popular usage the term came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft and because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some investigators prefer to use such terms as unidentified aerial phenomenon (or UAP).
History lesson over; lets get down to examining the gravity anomalies associated with UAPs in all their guises, the first being from an extra-terrestrial intelligence stance.
Stanton_friedmanIt is commonly accepted in the ufological community that UFOs employ some kind of anti-gravity propulsion system  to travel from point A to point B. For several decades scientists such as Stanton T Friedman, et al, have been pondering on this very subject. Given the aerodynamic capabilities employed by these craft it would seem logical that such an advanced system would be necessary.  It would be most assuredly beneficial to any UAP occupants. Without anti-gravity they wouldn’t survive the inertial effects caused by the craft’s manoeuvres; particularly the sudden right angle turns and instant accelerations/decelerations. We have all felt at one time or another the effects of inertia; when driving in a vehicle for example. If the brakes are suddenly applied the bodies at rest (passengers) within it continue a forward motion. This is inertia.
Anti-gravitational effects are frequently witnessed or experienced by those who come into contact with UAPs. Many abductees claim to have been levitated aboard UFOs via beams of light (Linda Cortile). Not only that, but the occupants of the craft themselves are often seen to levitate or float above the ground, as in the Hopkinsville encounter.
Wherever, these entities come from it would appear they have a highly advanced technology way in advance of our current understanding. In comparison, humanity is just beginning its first tentative baby steps into the phenomenon, but the controversial work being done by the likes of Canadian, John Hutchinson offers a glimmer of hope into the causal effects of the phenomenon.

Diamagnetic  Levitation.

Can humans be levitated?  Theoretically, yes they can.
220px-Frog_diamagnetic_levitationFrom empirical experimentation and observations into levitation we know that simple metals, liquids, various plants, and living creatures are diamagnetic . Like frogs, humans bodies are approximately two thirds water. Water is diamagnetic and as such is affected by magnetic fields. It is therefore feasible that a  human could be levitated. The ability to levitate does not depend on the amount of material involved, but rather the amount of energy put into it to achieve levitation. It is important to note that diamagnetic levitation is different to other forms of levitation in that it affects the gravitational force on an atomic and molecular level.
See also:

 Is Gravity a Constant.?

The simple answer is no. There are regions on Earth that have a lower gravity. One such gravitational anomaly is in the Hudson Bay region, Canada. The anomaly was first discovered in 1960, when the Earth’s global gravity fields were being charted.
It is important to note at this juncture that gravity is proportional to the mass. The heavier the mass the greater the gravity. Although we think of the Earth as being spherical the truth is it actually bulges out at the Equator and flattens at the poles, due to the centrifugal force of its rotation, thus its gravity is not spread out equally. Knowing this, scientists put forward two theories to explain how the mass of the Hudson Bay region had decreased, contributing to the area’s lower gravity.

equatorial bulge

The Convection Theory.

This theory centers on a process which occurs in the Earth’s mantle. The mantle is a layer of molten rock called magma. It lies between 60 and 124 miles (100 to 200 km) below the surface of the Earth . The magma is extremely hot and constantly whirls and shifts, rises and falls, creating convection currents. Convection drags the Earth’s continental plates down, which decreases the mass in that area and thereby decreases the gravity.

The Laurentide Ice Sheet Theory.

The latest theory to account for the Hudson Bay area’s missing gravity concerns the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered much of present-day Canada and the northern United States. This ice sheet was almost 2 miles (3.2 km) thick in most sections, and in two areas of Hudson Bay, it was 2.3 miles (3.7 km) thick. It was also very heavy and weighed down the Earth. Over a period of 10,000 years, the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted, finally disappearing 10,000 years ago, leaving behind a deep indentation in the Earth.
The above is analogous to lightly pressing ones finger onto the surface of a springy loaf of bread. Some of it will be displaced to the sides. At the point of pressure there’s an indentation. When the finger is removed, the loaf quickly returns to its normal shape. A similar occurrence happened with the Laurentide Ice Sheet. However, the Earth isn’t returning quickly back, but is rebounding very slowly (less than half an inch per year). Meanwhile, the area around Hudson Bay has less mass because some of the Earth has been displaced to the sides by the ice sheet. Less mass equals less gravity.
As was noted earlier, anything which has mass has a gravity field and we humans are no exceptions to the rule. Of course, our gravitational fields go unnoticed by us because they are so infinitesimally small.
There appears to be no natural force in nature to account for gravity defying human levitation or even that of inert objects. Nonetheless, if we consider the work of John Hutchinson et al it would appear that anti-gravity is feasible from a technological standpoint. This of course would imply there is some intelligent intermediary at work; an advanced intelligence with the capability to alter or manipulate matter at sub-atomic levels.
Let’s take another look at the frog experiment. You will note in the video link  below that the frog is being levitated inside a 10 tesla magnetic coil using diamagnetism. To what purpose? What function does the coil serve?

atomic structure
As most of us are aware all matter in the universe is made up of small particles. These particles we call atoms and they are made up of three particles: electrons, neutrons, and protons. Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and are to be found in the center of the atom; the nucleus.
If one places an atom, or a larger piece of matter containing billions of atoms, inside a magnetic maxresdefaultfield (the coil) the disturbed electrons create their own magnetic field in opposition to the applied magnetic field.   It is this principle which causes the frog to float as though it was in space. The opposition is akin to when we try pushing two magnets with like poles together. The two like poles are repelled and push away from each other. Is the  ‘beam’, mentioned earlier in UAP abduction cases, analogous to the coil holding the frog in suspension and stopping it from flying off laterally?
So far, we have learnt that gravity is not uniformly spread around the Earth. It is weaker in some places than others. However, these low gravity anomalies are so weak that they have no negligible effect on the physical surroundings. It is therefore highly unlikely that they are responsible for the reports of human, animal, or inanimate object levitation. This raises some disturbing questions as to their causality.
It is this author’s opinion that there could be a technologically advanced intelligence behind this phenomenon; one far superior to our own. If we, as a type 0 civilisation , have the capacity to nullify gravity to a minor extent then one can only imagine the technological breakthroughs made by much older civilisations.  The levitation of people, animals and objects in UAP cases are well documented and provide strong circumstantial  evidence in favour of  a superior intellect at work.

© David Calvert  2016

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Bilocation & Related Phenomena


Astral projection (or astral travel) is an interpretation of an out-of-body experience (OBE) that assumes the existence of an “astral body” separate from the physical body and capable of travelling outside it. Astral projection or travel denotes the astral body leaving the physical body to travel in an astral plane.’
Bilocation is another term that is sometimes used to describe an out-of-body experience wherein a subject undergoes a temporary projection or externalisation, either voluntary or involuntary, from the corporeal body during physical life. It would appear from the abundant literature on the subject that we humans are comprised of both a physical and “subtle body“, the latter being connected to the former by a “silver cord” which is said to be capable of infinite extension.
Detailed accounts of this phenomenon appear in many diverse cultures throughout the world. The Bible itself makes mention of the separation of the cord from the physical body, when it says in Ecclesiastes 12: 6-7:
“Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.”
In the New International Version are written the words:
“Remember him—before the silver cord is severed, or the golden bowl is broken; before the pitcher is shattered at the spring, or the wheel broken at the well, and the dust returns to the ground it came from, and the spirit returns to God who gave it.”
From the above we have learnt this is far from being a “New Age” concept. It is a belief system that spans aeons of time, as the following historicity demonstrates.

Ancient Egypt

Similar concepts of soul travel appear in ancient Egyptian teachings and present the soul as having the ability to hover outside the physical body in the ka, or subtle body.


SekienIkiryoIn Japanese mythology, there is the ikiryō which is believed to be  a manifestation of the soul of a living person separated from its physical body.  The ikiryo  is but a part of the whole  soul that can temporarily leave its host body. Depending on the practitioner’s purpose, it can be malevolent or benevolent. Such souls are also believed to leave a living body during periods of extreme sickness or when comatose; such ikiryō are not malevolent.


Western Esotericism

H. P. Blavatsky‘s theosophical teaching represented the convergence of 19th century Western occultism, Eastern philosophy, religion, science, and mysticism. The Secret Doctrine, and The Key to Theosophy combined the Vedantic concept of five koshas with Western esoteric traditions (particularly Neoplatonism). She refers to three subtle bodies, but for the purpose of this article we need only consider the first, it being the  Linga Sharira – the Double or Astral body
Astral planeThe Linga Sharira is the invisible double of the human body, elsewhere referred to as the etheric body, doppelgänger or bioplasmic body and serves as a  matrix of the physical body, which conforms to the shape, appearance and condition of the “double”. The linga sharira can be separated or projected a limited distance from the body. This distinguishes it from other concepts in which astral planes can be accessed. When separated from the body it can be wounded by sharp objects. When it returns to the physical frame, the wound will be reflected in the physical counterpart, a phenomenon called “repercussion.” At death, it is discarded together with the physical body and eventually disintegrates or decomposes.

Involuntary Projection

As the term suggests, involuntary projection (IP) occurs spontaneously.  Occurrences of IP are rare and are occasionally reported by those who have  undergone near death experiences (NDEs).  Below are 10  examples of NDEs.

From the foregoing video you  may have noted the differences between NDEs and astral projection, which may suggest they are not one and the same thing. There appears to be a distinction between the two. Astral travel, when practiced by an adept can be controlled at will, unlike NDEs wherein the experiencer has no control whatsoever. The prime common denominator appears to be the externalisation of the astral spirit itself. 

Is Astral Projection Akin to  Lucid Dreaming?

Here’s what Jarel Zeilel, writer, lucid dreamer, story teller and filmmaker, has to say on the subject:

Notable Adepts of Astral Projection:

The Ecsomatic Experience and Science.

arthur w wigginsArthur W. Wiggins, writing in Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends…and Pseudoscience Begins, said that purported evidence of the ability to astral travel great distances and give descriptions of places visited is predominantly anecdotal. In 1978, Ingo Swann provided a test of his alleged ability to astral travel to Jupiter and observe details of the planet. Actual findings and information were later compared to Swann’s claimed observations; according to an evaluation by James Randi, Swann’s accuracy was “unconvincing and unimpressive” with an overall score of 37 percent. Wiggins considers astral travel an illusion, and looks to neuroanatomy, human belief, imagination and prior knowledge to provide prosaic explanations for those claiming to experience it. (
Robert Todd Carroll writes that the main evidence to support claims of astral travel is anecdotal and comes “in the form of testimonials of those who claim to have experienced being out of their bodies when they may have been out of their minds.” Subjects in parapsychological experiments have attempted to project their astral bodies to distant rooms and see what was happening. However, such experiments have produced negative results.
According to Bob Bruce of the Queensland Sceptics Association, astral projection is “just imagining”, or “a dream state”. Although parallel universes are mathematically possible, Bruce writes that the existence of an astral plane is contrary to the limits of science. “We know how many possibilities there are for dimensions and we know what the dimensions do. None of it correlates with things like astral projection.” Bruce attributes astral experiences such as “meetings” alleged by practitioners to confirmation bias and coincidences. (
It would seem from the above that the scientific community have had the last say on this subject …or have they? You decide.

 © David Calvert 2016

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USS Trepang UFOs.

An Analysis of USS Trepang Encounter.

USS Trepang Launch

Trepang being launched at Groton, Connecticut, on 27 September 1969.


Early in 1971, following local operations out of her home port in Connecticut, the USS Trepang submarine set sail for the Arctic. From February 22 to March 22 she operated beneath the polar ice cap. Whilst conducting extensive tests for her weapons systems and scientific experiments on the Rear Admiral Dean Reynolds Sackett cap itself, it is alleged she ‘accidently’ encountered several anomalous objects somewhere between Jan Mayen Island and Iceland. During the course of the encounter several photographs were taken through her periscope, recording the unfolding events. The Commanding Officer at the time of the said sighting was Admiral Dean Reynolds Sackett Jr. He was commissioned as the Commanding Officer of the Trepang (SSN-674) on August 14 1970 to December 7 1973.


I have attempted to make some chronological sense of the sequence of  events from the images below which are said to have been taken during March 1971. The photos are taken from case files and are the original high resolution images sent to Alex Mistretta, Investigator/Researcher, at

fig 1

 Official Trepang UFO image1

[There is nothing in the file metadata that indicates this file has been edited.]
As  you can see from the above caption, I have conducted a scan of the image and looked for signs of editing.  The file metadata showed nothing untoward. A visual inspection of the photo was equally unforthcoming. The image appears genuine. The question arises as to what the huge object actually represents. Is it an extra-terrestrial “mothership”, as some have claimed, or something entirely different?
Seeing this image reminded me of another photographic analysis case I had worked on. As it transpired, that single photo case turned out to have a rational explanation as, I believe, the above image does.


Red circle = Jan Mayen. Red arrow = Iceland.
As you will recall from the background details of this sighting the Trepang was situated between Jan Mayen Island and Iceland at the time of the encounter. it’s my contention that the above photograph shows an inverted superior mirage of the island itself. The following flipped, cleaned up and cropped  image  shows the object in an entirely different light. In it you will note what appears very much like shoreline breakers, and sparse vegetation (possibly tree canopies?).


A comparison example of a superior mirage

superior mirage

Please note the cut off line at the top of the mirage element of the ship, and that the whole vessel isn’t visible.  Superior mirages are quite common in polar regions. A superior mirage can be right-side up or upside down, depending on the distance of the true object and the temperature gradient. Often the image appears as a distorted mixture of up and down parts.


Superior mirages can have a striking effect due to the Earth’s curvature. Were the Earth flat, light rays that bend down would soon hit the ground and only nearby objects would be affected. Since Earth is round, if their downward bending curve is about the same as the curvature of the Earth, light rays can travel large distances, even from beyond the horizon.
Moving on to the next image in my imagined sequence of events brings us to fig. 2. Here we see a cylindrical object low on the horizon. The attendant caption describes what was uncovered after a scan of the image.


offical trepang ufo 2
Pixels only match software editors, showing that it has most probably been altered.
A visual inspection of fig 2 shows disturbances in the pixilation pattern, suggesting  the image has been tampered with. The vertical crosshair ‘ghosting’ in this image is most probably due to the submarine’s analog camera creating a double exposure. Multiple exposures are photographs in which two or more images are superimposed in a single frame (see fig 6 crosshairs).

fig. 3

offical trepang ufo4 - Copy

Based on the pixels, this image could have been created with one of several software editors.
In fig. 3 we see what appears to be a triangular craft (possibly an early prototype stealth fighter). It is difficult to determine whether it is heading towards the sub or away from it in a nose dive toward the ocean. A visual inspection of the image shows no signs of it being photo shopped. The faint vertical periscope crosshair intersecting the object doesn’t show any signs of warping as it would had the object  been added to the image, as the image below demonstrates.

Warping effect

In figure 4 we see the object in what appears to be a manoeuvre that would suggest it is vectoring away from the sub. Note the lack of periscope crosshairs in the image. This may be due to it having been cropped.

offical trepang 5 - Copy

Cleaned up image
Original image/ fig 4

offical trepang 5

Pixels only match software editors
fig 5

official trepang ufo 10

There is nothing in the file metadata that indicates this file has been edited.
You will note in fig. 5 that the object appears to have a tail fin unlike that of fig 2, which suggests they are not the same object.
fig 6

official trepang uof7

There is nothing in the file metadata that indicates this file has been edited.
The above image (fig 6) shows the stricken object crashing into the ocean. To it’s left is a smaller object. It’s triangular configuration would suggest it is the aircraft seen in figures 3 and 4. Note the angle and orientation of the cylindrical object as it strikes the water.
fig. 7

official trepang ufo6

There is nothing in the file metadata that indicates this file has been edited.
The change in the viewing perspective of figures 6 and 7 has changed dramatically. The tiny triangular object seen above the cylinder in fig 7 may be the aircraft mentioned earlier. If so, this image was taken from an entirely different view point, probably another submarine.

official trepang ufo8

There is nothing in the file metadata that indicates this file has been edited.
In images 7 and 8 you will note the dark, small funnel-like cloud that appears on the left of the photos. This would imply that both images belong to the same batch. In image 6 it is not visible. Nor is the heavy cloud cover from which it is projecting. This could be due to the possibility that the image was taken from a different angle in which the overcast is not visible i.e. from a different submarine.
fig 9

trepang ufo 10

Photo edited with GD graphics.
Of all the above images this one is highly suspect. The image quality is far superior to the others and the pixilation pattern is not consistent throughout the image, particularly around the object. Note also there are no indications of the periscope crosshairs or range finder lines. Also, just above the ocean’s surface on the left is what appears to be an island landscape. It is unlikely to be Jan Mayen Island because as we learnt in image 2 the island was below the horizon and was only visible as a superior mirage.
We have seen from the foregoing that the Trepang was conducting not only a survey of the polar icecap but was also engaged in a weapons testing exercise. Research shows that it was common practice at the time for the military to use decommissioned balloons/Zeppelins as targets after stripping them of any external superstructures such as gondolas, etc. It is quite probable that the cylindrical object(s) seen in these images are of decommissioned balloons.
Triangular stealth aircraftGiven that they were testing “new weapons systems” at the time may account for what appears to be a stealth fighter. It is conceivable that images 3 and 4  could be that of an early prototype  fighter being tested. Its design certainly fits in with many modern triangular-like stealth aircraft we know of today.


There are 9 images in total. Of those 9, five show signs of digital manipulation to one degree or another. They are figures 2, 3, 4, and 9, the remaining showing no signs of manipulation whatsoever. Of those, figures 6, 7and 8 appear to have been taken from a different vantage point, possibly another submarine. Approximately one month earlier the submarine USS Skate was in the same region. Might images 6, 7 and 8 have been taken at that time by the USS Skate and subsequently added to the mix by some hoaxer? My recent research into the Skates whereabouts at the time would suggest it wasn’t in the Arctic at the time as the deployment list link above shows.
The so-called Trepang images themselves are contentious. When Admiral Sacket was approached by Steve Murillo, head of the UFO and Paranormal Research Society, he steered away from the UFO question saying, “I only saw ice” It could be argued, however, that he said that so as not to fall foul of his security oath.

David v Goliath.

How often have we heard or read about the superior technology employed by our extra-terrestrial visitors. Our fastest Jets can’t outrun them, and when and if they do manage to lock on to them with their weapons systems they are immediately shut down or the UFO becomes invisible, both on radar and to the naked eye. To suggest that these images show a bona fide extra-terrestrial craft being shot down using inferior terrestrial weaponry is about as believable as David killing Goliath with a stone. For this author, given the inconsistencies pointed out in this analysis, I find it more credible that an elaborate hoax was perpetrated by person or persons unknown.
 © David Calvert 2016

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The Werewolf.

David Calvert.



“Never stray from the path, never eat a windfall apple, and never trust a man whose eyebrows meet in the middle.” – Company of Wolves.
There are diverse tales concerning werewolf folklore. They span cultural boundaries and can be found in ancient Greek writings up to the present day. In European folklore it is a widespread concept which developed during the medieval period.
In the late 16th century one Peter Stubbe, a Rhenish farmer, was accused of being a “serial killer and “cannibal”. He was also known as the “Werewolf of Bedburg” His trial in 1589 was one of the most lurid and famous trials in history. With the threat of torture hanging over him,  he confessed to murdering  and cannibalising  fourteen children, one of which was his son and  two pregnant women.
Vile though his crimes undoubtedly were, this hardly makes him a lycanthrope with the ability to change himself into a wolfman. So where did the notion come from? Unsurprisingly, it came from his own mouth. After being stretched on a rack, and before any further torture began, he admitted to having practiced black magic. He claimed the Devil had given him a magical belt or girdle which enabled him to transform himself into a wolf. On removing it he would change back into a human being. This, however, didn’t save him from the executioner, as he may have hoped it would.
His execution took place on October 31st, 1589,  and is recorded as being one of the most brutal on record. Having been lashed to a wheel he had flesh torn from him with red-hot pincers. Then his limbs were broken with the blunt side of an axe to prevent him from returning from the grave. He was then beheaded and burned on a pyre.


According to Montague Summers in his 1928’s acclaimed work ‘The Werewolf’, the origin of the creature goes back a few thousand years. The ancient Greeks may have adopted their concept of lycanthropy from the Phoenician cult, which originated in 1200 BC, and put a different spin on it.


Norway and Iceland

The Werewolf legend is an historical mystery of international proportions, spanning time, locations and cultural  folklore. The Norse and Icelandic mythology are an example of cross cultural mythologising; the Aiser religion of the Norse having left elements of their belief system in the Icelandic culture during the time of their colonisation.
The Volsunga Saga  is the story of father and son, Sigmund and Sinfjotli.  
‘While wandering in the woods, Sigmund and Sinfjotli come upon a hut where they find two spellbound wolf pelts. If put on, either pelt will turn a man into a wolf and will possess the power, cunningness, and valour of wolves. But the pelt can only be taken off every tenth day. Having put on the pelts, Sigmund and Sinfjotli turn into wolves and begin wandering about the forest together. Before they split up, they agreed to howl to each other if either of them encounters seven men to fight at a time. Sinfjotli, the son, breaches the agreement and kills 11 men at one time. Angered, Sigmund fatally injures his son. But then a raven, the messenger of Odin, brings a healing leaf to place on Sinfjotli’s wound. After Sinfjotli is healed from his wound, he and his father take off the enchanted wolf pelts as the tenth day arrived. They burned the pelts to ashes, and freed themselves from the curse of lycanthropy’.
Similar tales of Werewolfism can also be found in north and south America. In Mexico it is known a “Nahual” or “Nagaul”. The north American mythology is mainly borrowed from tales of the European ‘New World’ settlers. In actuality, the contemporary werewolf myth we see today was created by the Americans.



Yee naaldlooshii, translated: “with it, he goes on all fours”, is the Navajo name for a witch who use their powers of transmogrification to travel in animal form. it is a kind of subset of the werewolf legends in that it can take the form of a wolf, among other things. An individual is said to gain the power on initiation into the Witchery Way, the Navajo equivalent of a Black Mass.
Though, purportedly , some attempts have been made to shoot or kill one, they are usually unsuccessful, due to them being fast and agile.  Sometimes a skinwalker will be hunted down, only to lead to the house of someone known to the tracker. It is said that if a Navajo was to know the person behind the skinwalker they had to pronounce the full name, and about three days later that person would either get sick or die for whatever crime they had committed.
Unlike it’s European counterpart, the Werewolf, the skinwalkers are said to be distinguishable in  their human form because their eyes glow like an animals. Another thing that sets them apart from the Werewolf legend is their ability to change form consciously. They appear unaffected by the lunar cycles.

Lycanthropy and the Human Condition.

lycanthropy and the human mind
‘Clinical lycanthropy is defined as a rare psychiatric syndrome that involves a delusion that the affected person can transform into, has transformed into, or is a non-human animal. Its name is connected to the mythical condition of lycanthropy, a supernatural affliction in which humans are said to physically shapeshift into wolves. It is purported to be a rare disorder.’
This clinical condition is linked with the altered states of mind that accompany psychosis. The reality-bending events typically involve delusion and hallucinations in which the individual experiences the transformation in his/her  mind, affecting their behaviour. But just how common are they? Dr. Jan Dirk Blom, an assistant professor of psychiatry at the University of Groningen, in the Netherlands, mined the archives of psychiatry to find out.
Blom found that since 1850, there have been 56 original case descriptions of people who believed they were metamorphosing into an animal. Among them, 13 reports met the criteria for clinical lycanthropy, the medical term for having delusions of being able to turn into a wolf. The adjective ‘clinical’ is used to emphasize that the condition doesn’t mean actual lycanthropy, or the ability to metamorphose physically into a wolf, Blom said.
The remaining cases were variants of the condition, with patients having delusional convictions about being a dog, a boa snake, a frog or a bee, according to the study published in the March issue of the journal History of Psychiatry. [10 Controversial Psychiatric Disorders]
“I had expected to find more cases, because in textbooks the condition is mentioned quite often in passing,” Blom said. 
But such a low number of clinical lycanthropy cases reported in over 150 years suggests the condition may be even rarer than previously thought, Blom said. Doctors “should take heed not to cry wolf too often.”
There is still much that is unknown about the human psyche and its capabilities. Is it conceivable that it has the ability to literally transform a human into an animal? Of the little that we do know, I would say not. There is no tangible evidence to support such an hypothesis.

© David Calvert 2016

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