Externalised Thought Forms.

The Tulpa

tulpa 1

These types of alleged entities are known by various names, such as the one above. As the blog title would imply, they are internally generated thoughts which have been externalised into the physical world. The Tulpa in mysticism is an entity which is created through sheer spiritual or mental discipline. In Indian Buddhist texts it is defined as any unreal, illusory or mentally created apparition. In black magic they are  referred to as ‘Fetches’ and are used as a vehicle for the practitioner’s consciousness, usually in a form that is designed to  terrify the victim  at whom it is directed. This type of projected thought form bears a close relationship to astral projection.
The derivation of the word ‘fetch’ is unknown, but it may have some connection with  fetish since it is something ‘made’ or ‘created’ by the magician.
The term ‘tulpa’ is used in the works of Alexandra David-Néel, a Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist and Buddhist, who observed these practices in 20th century Tibet. He wrote that ‘An accomplished Bodhisattva is capable of effecting ten kinds of magic creations. The power of producing magic formations, tulkus or less lasting and materialized tulpas does not, however, belong exclusively to such mystic exalted beings. Any human, divine or demonic being may be possessed of it. The only difference comes from the degree of power, and this depends on the strength of the concentration and the quality of the mind itself.’
According to David-Néel’s writings  the tulpa has the ability to develop a mind of its own and will seek to free itself from its creator’s control and take on a life of its own. He goes on to say that he, himself, had created a tulpa which later developed a life of its own and had to be destroyed. The alleged materialised thought form (a monk)  was apparently witnessed by others

 Imaginary Friends

‘Imaginary friends are a psychological and social phenomenon where a friendship or other interpersonal relationship takes place in the imagination rather than external physical reality’
imaginary friend.
Assuming, for the sake of argument, that there is some truth regarding projected thought forms, one can only imagine the ensuing chaos presented by them were we capable of conjuring up such entities. It is perhaps fortunate that It takes a disciplined mind and years of practice to create such and entity. What autonomous monstrosities, one wonders, could the fertile  imagination of a child or a serial killer conjure up and unleash upon the world.
To date, however,  there is no verifiable empirical evidence to support the existence of these so-called ‘sentient’ entities. However, this does not deter certain on-line factions of the community from  insisting that they are real. At best, their evidence is anecdotal and doesn’t lend credence to the existence of tulpas. 
Chidambaram Ramesh, an Indian author and researcher, has mentioned in his book “Thought Forms and Hallucinations” that the creation of thought forms and other mental entities like Tulpas etc., is the result of holographic mind processing.  He works to rediscover scientifically influential ideas from ancient texts and time periods that have been largely forgotten by present day society, and examines these theories within the realm of contemporary science.

Tulpas: Real or Imagined?

If  Alexander David-Néel is to be believed it would appear they are real; given that he asserts his tulpa was witnessed by others. Herein lies a paradox. According to the literature on the subject, perceiving the tulpa visually is initially done internally. At the early stages, it may be hard for one to visualize a stable form mentally and it may lack detail or flicker and fragment. Visualization is a skill that is developed through persistent use which is commonly referred to as “forcing.” As time goes on, the tulpa’s form will manifest as a stronger internal or external hallucination, [my emphasis] gaining stability in integrity, and a perceived increase of detail and substance.
The relevant word here ishallucination, of which there are many types. This expression crops up consistently in forums concerning the nature of tulpas.
So far we have learnt that tulpas are a mental construction which can apparently act independently of, and parallel to, the practitioners consciousness. They are capable of independent thought and, according to some, have their own free will, emotions, and memories.  In short, a tulpa is a sentient entity living inside the head of its creator, yet separate from him/her. To this author’s way of thinking this hardly constitutes true independence and free will.

Memories and Emotions.



From an information processing perspective there are three main stages in the formation and retrieval of memory:
  • Encoding or registration: receiving, processing and combining of received information
  • Storage: the creation of a permanent record of the encoded information in short or long term memory.
  • Retrieval: the encoding of information requires a physical medium on which to store it. Since tulpas are not a physical medium how then is the information stored to be retrieved later as memories?
In popular culture the concept of tulpas is widespread and can also be found in fictional literature and films, to which I will add my own. They are:
  • Tulpa (2012 movie)
  • The Babadook (book) 
  • Inside Out (movie)
  • Legion (novellas)
  • The Fetch (a short story from my book ‘Strange Dominions’.)
  • In Your Eyes (2014 movie)
  • Harvey (1950 movie)
                                                           © David Calvert 2016

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Gravitational Anomalies



 levitation. : the act or process of levitating; especially : the rising or lifting of a person or thing by means held to be supernatural.
Of all magicians’ acts, the levitation/illusion trick is perhaps the most spellbinding and has enthralled audiences throughout the world since it was first performed. Of course, we’re all aware that it is a trick whose secrets are jealously guarded by those performing them. We know there is no supernatural intermediary  involved in the feat. After all, no one can overcome Newton’s law of universal gravitation. It is a constant that holds us to our world. Without it we would drift off into space.
It is a widely held misconception, however, that gravity is the “strongest force”. The truth is  that when matched against the electromagnetic so-called “weak force” it is easily beaten. Here are the forces in order from strongest to weakest:
  1. The strong nuclear force.
  2. The electromagnetic force.
  3. The weak nuclear force.
  4. Gravity.
Yes, a simple magnet can pick up paperclips from a desktop, thus demonstrating the relative weakness of gravity. However, for complex and diverse reasons, it can’t account for involuntary  human levitation. To the best of this author’s knowledge no serious study has ever been conducted by the scientific community into the human levitation phenomenon. More on that later.
Levitation, according to some, is a  psychokinetic phenomenon in which animals, people, and objects are lifted into the air. Lets take a look at what I reason to be one of the best historical examples of human levitation.

Joseph of Copertino (b. Giuseppe Maria Desa).

As a child, Joseph had experiences of ecstatic visions that continued throughout the remainder of his life. In 1620 he was accepted as a lay brother of the Capuchin friars, but was shortly thereafter dismissed as his continued ecstasies made him unfit for his duties.
On returning home, much to the scorn of his family, he pleaded with the Conventual friars near Copertino to serve in their stables, which he did for several years. The friars were so impressed with his devotion and the simplicity of his life that he was admitted to their Order. In 1628 he became an ordained Catholic priest and was sent to the  Shrine of the Madonna della Grazia , spending the next 15 years there.
It was during his time there that the occasions of his ecstasy began to multiply. Whilst participating at a Mass and also joining the community for the Liturgy of the Hours he began to levitate, gaining a widespread reputation of holiness. He was eventually deemed disruptive by his religious superiors and Church authorities and was confined to a small cell.
The worst was yet to come, when he was ultimately denounced to the Inquisition, as a result of which he ended up under the supervision of the Capuchin friars, where he practiced a severe asceticism for the next 35 years.
As the phenomenon of flying or levitation was widely believed to be connected with witchcraft, Joseph was denounced to the   Inquisition. At their command, he was transferred from one Franciscan friary in the region to another for observation, first to Assisi (1639–53), then briefly to Pietrarubbia and finally Fossombrone where he lived with, and under the supervision of, the Capuchin friars. There – as we have learnt – he practiced a severe  asceticism , usually eating solid food only twice a week.  In 1657 he was eventually packed off to a Conventual community, and shortly thereafter he died.

Why do I think this case may be genuine?

  1. Joseph had ecstatic visions throughout his entire life. Religious ecstasy is a type of altered state of consciousness characterized by greatly reduced external awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness, frequently accompanied by visions and emotional  euphoria. Is it possible these interminable altered states were a prelude and/or causal factor in his acts of  levitation? We may never know. Certainly, the dissociation caused by Joseph’s practice of fasting may be a determining factor, insofar as they would lead  inexorably toward an altered state of consciousness (ASC).
  2. There is no evidence whatsoever that would suggest Joseph had the intelligence or skills to perform tricks of this magnitude. On the contrary, he was noted as being a “dullard” by all who  knew him.
  3. We have read how his life was turned upside down by his euphoric visions and gravity defying episodes, the latter of which totalled 70. Even his own family scorned him. Despite this, the phenomenon continued to dominate his life, unabated.
  4. The most overpowering proof that his levitation was genuine was when he was brought before the Inquisition. As some readers may be aware, flying or levitating was widely believed to be connected to witchcraft for which the penalty was invariably an agonising death. Why would he deliberately put himself in such an unenviable and life threatening position for the sake of a few magic/illusionist tricks?
  5. On the matter of the Inquisition, nothing could be proved against Joseph. It is conceivable that his inquisitors doubted whether it was safe to allow him – given his apparent supernatural powers – back into the community. After all they weren’t certain of their provenance, be it God or the Devil. At some point in his trial a decision seems to have been made to send this completely humble man, who was said to be embarrassed by his abilities, to the Capuchin convent where he spent the remainder of his life in strict seclusion.
I realise of course that some of my above speculations are somewhat contentious, as there is no solid evidence to support the idea that ASCs, per se, can bring about gravity defying phenomena. I do however think that they may have been the catalyst for his other alleged abilities that included mental telepathy (the supposed communication of thoughts or ideas by means other than the known senses) and Precognition (foreknowledge of an event, especially as a form of extrasensory perception) . Of course, ASCs can’t account for levitation in animals and inert objects. There must be an external force/catalyst at work.
Other cases of human levitation include:
  • Saint Francis of Assisi who is recorded as having been “suspended above the earth, often to a height of three, and often to a height of four cubits” (about 1.3 to 1.8 meters).
  • Girolamo Savonarola, sentenced to death, allegedly rose off the floor of his cell into midair and remained there for some time.
  • Seraphim of Sarov (1759–1833) Russian Orthodox saint had a gift to levitate over the ground for some time. This was witnessed by many educated people of his time, including the emperor Alexander I. A young paralyzed man brought into his cell saw Seraphim raised from the ground during a fervent prayer. Likewise, four Diveyevo sisters saw him walking above the grass lifted up from the air.
  • Clara Germana Cele, a young South African girl, in 1906 reportedly levitated in a rigid position. The effect was apparently only reversed by the application of Holy water, leading to the belief that it was caused by demonic possession.
  • Mariam Baouardy “little Arab” (1846-1878), a Carmelite nun, who died in Bethlehem in 1878, and frequently experienced ecstasies, was seen levitating more than once by others: for example, in the garden of the monastery during times of private prayer, when living in the Carmelite monastery at Pau, in France.
From the foregoing one might conclude that such occurrences are prevalent in those of a religious disposition. Not so. There are many levitation cases involving people from within secular communities.  In the following section we will deal with levitation from an advanced technology perspective.

UAPs and Gravity Anomalies.

220px-PurportedUFO2What is a UAP? The acronym stands for ‘Unidentified Aerial Phenomena’ and is used in conjunction with the much older term UFO (Unidentified Flying Object). The latter acronym was first employed  in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF) to serve as a catch-all for all flying saucer/flying disc reports. The term UFO became more widespread during the 1950s up to the present day and was first used in technical literature, then later in popular use. In popular usage the term came to be used to refer to claims of alien spacecraft and because of the public and media ridicule associated with the topic, some investigators prefer to use such terms as unidentified aerial phenomenon (or UAP).
History lesson over; lets get down to examining the gravity anomalies associated with UAPs in all their guises, the first being from an extra-terrestrial intelligence stance.
Stanton_friedmanIt is commonly accepted in the ufological community that UFOs employ some kind of anti-gravity propulsion system  to travel from point A to point B. For several decades scientists such as Stanton T Friedman, et al, have been pondering on this very subject. Given the aerodynamic capabilities employed by these craft it would seem logical that such an advanced system would be necessary.  It would be most assuredly beneficial to any UAP occupants. Without anti-gravity they wouldn’t survive the inertial effects caused by the craft’s manoeuvres; particularly the sudden right angle turns and instant accelerations/decelerations. We have all felt at one time or another the effects of inertia; when driving in a vehicle for example. If the brakes are suddenly applied the bodies at rest (passengers) within it continue a forward motion. This is inertia.
Anti-gravitational effects are frequently witnessed or experienced by those who come into contact with UAPs. Many abductees claim to have been levitated aboard UFOs via beams of light (Linda Cortile). Not only that, but the occupants of the craft themselves are often seen to levitate or float above the ground, as in the Hopkinsville encounter.
Wherever, these entities come from it would appear they have a highly advanced technology way in advance of our current understanding. In comparison, humanity is just beginning its first tentative baby steps into the phenomenon, but the controversial work being done by the likes of Canadian, John Hutchinson offers a glimmer of hope into the causal effects of the phenomenon.

Diamagnetic  Levitation.

Can humans be levitated?  Theoretically, yes they can.
220px-Frog_diamagnetic_levitationFrom empirical experimentation and observations into levitation we know that simple metals, liquids, various plants, and living creatures are diamagnetic . Like frogs, humans bodies are approximately two thirds water. Water is diamagnetic and as such is affected by magnetic fields. It is therefore feasible that a  human could be levitated. The ability to levitate does not depend on the amount of material involved, but rather the amount of energy put into it to achieve levitation. It is important to note that diamagnetic levitation is different to other forms of levitation in that it affects the gravitational force on an atomic and molecular level.
See also: http://www.physics.ucla.edu/marty/diamag/magnet.pdf

 Is Gravity a Constant.?

The simple answer is no. There are regions on Earth that have a lower gravity. One such gravitational anomaly is in the Hudson Bay region, Canada. The anomaly was first discovered in 1960, when the Earth’s global gravity fields were being charted.
It is important to note at this juncture that gravity is proportional to the mass. The heavier the mass the greater the gravity. Although we think of the Earth as being spherical the truth is it actually bulges out at the Equator and flattens at the poles, due to the centrifugal force of its rotation, thus its gravity is not spread out equally. Knowing this, scientists put forward two theories to explain how the mass of the Hudson Bay region had decreased, contributing to the area’s lower gravity.

equatorial bulge

The Convection Theory.

This theory centers on a process which occurs in the Earth’s mantle. The mantle is a layer of molten rock called magma. It lies between 60 and 124 miles (100 to 200 km) below the surface of the Earth . The magma is extremely hot and constantly whirls and shifts, rises and falls, creating convection currents. Convection drags the Earth’s continental plates down, which decreases the mass in that area and thereby decreases the gravity.

The Laurentide Ice Sheet Theory.

The latest theory to account for the Hudson Bay area’s missing gravity concerns the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which covered much of present-day Canada and the northern United States. This ice sheet was almost 2 miles (3.2 km) thick in most sections, and in two areas of Hudson Bay, it was 2.3 miles (3.7 km) thick. It was also very heavy and weighed down the Earth. Over a period of 10,000 years, the Laurentide Ice Sheet melted, finally disappearing 10,000 years ago, leaving behind a deep indentation in the Earth.
The above is analogous to lightly pressing ones finger onto the surface of a springy loaf of bread. Some of it will be displaced to the sides. At the point of pressure there’s an indentation. When the finger is removed, the loaf quickly returns to its normal shape. A similar occurrence happened with the Laurentide Ice Sheet. However, the Earth isn’t returning quickly back, but is rebounding very slowly (less than half an inch per year). Meanwhile, the area around Hudson Bay has less mass because some of the Earth has been displaced to the sides by the ice sheet. Less mass equals less gravity.
As was noted earlier, anything which has mass has a gravity field and we humans are no exceptions to the rule. Of course, our gravitational fields go unnoticed by us because they are so infinitesimally small.
There appears to be no natural force in nature to account for gravity defying human levitation or even that of inert objects. Nonetheless, if we consider the work of John Hutchinson et al it would appear that anti-gravity is feasible from a technological standpoint. This of course would imply there is some intelligent intermediary at work; an advanced intelligence with the capability to alter or manipulate matter at sub-atomic levels.
Let’s take another look at the frog experiment. You will note in the video link  below that the frog is being levitated inside a 10 tesla magnetic coil using diamagnetism. To what purpose? What function does the coil serve?


atomic structure
As most of us are aware all matter in the universe is made up of small particles. These particles we call atoms and they are made up of three particles: electrons, neutrons, and protons. Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and are to be found in the center of the atom; the nucleus.
If one places an atom, or a larger piece of matter containing billions of atoms, inside a magnetic maxresdefaultfield (the coil) the disturbed electrons create their own magnetic field in opposition to the applied magnetic field.   It is this principle which causes the frog to float as though it was in space. The opposition is akin to when we try pushing two magnets with like poles together. The two like poles are repelled and push away from each other. Is the  ‘beam’, mentioned earlier in UAP abduction cases, analogous to the coil holding the frog in suspension and stopping it from flying off laterally?
So far, we have learnt that gravity is not uniformly spread around the Earth. It is weaker in some places than others. However, these low gravity anomalies are so weak that they have no negligible effect on the physical surroundings. It is therefore highly unlikely that they are responsible for the reports of human, animal, or inanimate object levitation. This raises some disturbing questions as to their causality.
It is this author’s opinion that there could be a technologically advanced intelligence behind this phenomenon; one far superior to our own. If we, as a type 0 civilisation , have the capacity to nullify gravity to a minor extent then one can only imagine the technological breakthroughs made by much older civilisations.  The levitation of people, animals and objects in UAP cases are well documented and provide strong circumstantial  evidence in favour of  a superior intellect at work.

© David Calvert  2016

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Bilocation & Related Phenomena


Astral projection (or astral travel) is an interpretation of an out-of-body experience (OBE) that assumes the existence of an “astral body” separate from the physical body and capable of travelling outside it. Astral projection or travel denotes the astral body leaving the physical body to travel in an astral plane.’
Bilocation is another term that is sometimes used to describe an out-of-body experience wherein a subject undergoes a temporary projection or externalisation, either voluntary or involuntary, from the corporeal body during physical life. It would appear from the abundant literature on the subject that we humans are comprised of both a physical and “subtle body“, the latter being connected to the former by a “silver cord” which is said to be capable of infinite extension.
Detailed accounts of this phenomenon appear in many diverse cultures throughout the world. The Bible itself makes mention of the separation of the cord from the physical body, when it says in Ecclesiastes 12: 6-7:
“Or ever the silver cord be loosed, or the golden bowl be broken, or the pitcher be broken at the fountain, or the wheel broken at the cistern. Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.”
In the New International Version are written the words:
“Remember him—before the silver cord is severed, or the golden bowl is broken; before the pitcher is shattered at the spring, or the wheel broken at the well, and the dust returns to the ground it came from, and the spirit returns to God who gave it.”
From the above we have learnt this is far from being a “New Age” concept. It is a belief system that spans aeons of time, as the following historicity demonstrates.

Ancient Egypt

Similar concepts of soul travel appear in ancient Egyptian teachings and present the soul as having the ability to hover outside the physical body in the ka, or subtle body.


SekienIkiryoIn Japanese mythology, there is the ikiryō which is believed to be  a manifestation of the soul of a living person separated from its physical body.  The ikiryo  is but a part of the whole  soul that can temporarily leave its host body. Depending on the practitioner’s purpose, it can be malevolent or benevolent. Such souls are also believed to leave a living body during periods of extreme sickness or when comatose; such ikiryō are not malevolent.


Western Esotericism

H. P. Blavatsky‘s theosophical teaching represented the convergence of 19th century Western occultism, Eastern philosophy, religion, science, and mysticism. The Secret Doctrine, and The Key to Theosophy combined the Vedantic concept of five koshas with Western esoteric traditions (particularly Neoplatonism). She refers to three subtle bodies, but for the purpose of this article we need only consider the first, it being the  Linga Sharira – the Double or Astral body
Astral planeThe Linga Sharira is the invisible double of the human body, elsewhere referred to as the etheric body, doppelgänger or bioplasmic body and serves as a  matrix of the physical body, which conforms to the shape, appearance and condition of the “double”. The linga sharira can be separated or projected a limited distance from the body. This distinguishes it from other concepts in which astral planes can be accessed. When separated from the body it can be wounded by sharp objects. When it returns to the physical frame, the wound will be reflected in the physical counterpart, a phenomenon called “repercussion.” At death, it is discarded together with the physical body and eventually disintegrates or decomposes.

Involuntary Projection

As the term suggests, involuntary projection (IP) occurs spontaneously.  Occurrences of IP are rare and are occasionally reported by those who have  undergone near death experiences (NDEs).  Below are 10  examples of NDEs.

From the foregoing video you  may have noted the differences between NDEs and astral projection, which may suggest they are not one and the same thing. There appears to be a distinction between the two. Astral travel, when practiced by an adept can be controlled at will, unlike NDEs wherein the experiencer has no control whatsoever. The prime common denominator appears to be the externalisation of the astral spirit itself. 

Is Astral Projection Akin to  Lucid Dreaming?

Here’s what Jarel Zeilel, writer, lucid dreamer, story teller and filmmaker, has to say on the subject: https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-lucid-dreaming-and-astral-projection.

Notable Adepts of Astral Projection:

The Ecsomatic Experience and Science.

arthur w wigginsArthur W. Wiggins, writing in Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends…and Pseudoscience Begins, said that purported evidence of the ability to astral travel great distances and give descriptions of places visited is predominantly anecdotal. In 1978, Ingo Swann provided a test of his alleged ability to astral travel to Jupiter and observe details of the planet. Actual findings and information were later compared to Swann’s claimed observations; according to an evaluation by James Randi, Swann’s accuracy was “unconvincing and unimpressive” with an overall score of 37 percent. Wiggins considers astral travel an illusion, and looks to neuroanatomy, human belief, imagination and prior knowledge to provide prosaic explanations for those claiming to experience it. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki).
Robert Todd Carroll writes that the main evidence to support claims of astral travel is anecdotal and comes “in the form of testimonials of those who claim to have experienced being out of their bodies when they may have been out of their minds.” Subjects in parapsychological experiments have attempted to project their astral bodies to distant rooms and see what was happening. However, such experiments have produced negative results.
According to Bob Bruce of the Queensland Sceptics Association, astral projection is “just imagining”, or “a dream state”. Although parallel universes are mathematically possible, Bruce writes that the existence of an astral plane is contrary to the limits of science. “We know how many possibilities there are for dimensions and we know what the dimensions do. None of it correlates with things like astral projection.” Bruce attributes astral experiences such as “meetings” alleged by practitioners to confirmation bias and coincidences. (http://www.skeptiko.com/out-of-body-experience-expert-robert-on-our-daemon-haunted-world/).
It would seem from the above that the scientific community have had the last say on this subject …or have they? You decide.

 © David Calvert 2016

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David Calvert

Throughout recorded history dreams have helped shape the destinies of great nations, have been instrumental in expanding self-awareness, and have changed the lives of the great and lowly alike, proving themselves to be both prophetic and powerful. It has been calculated that we sleep away a third of our day on average, and that if we live to the age of 75 we will have slept for an incredible 25 years and dreamt for 10 of them.

Dream Source

Though times and human cultures may have changed, our fascination with dreams has not. In the palace ‘dream halls’ of Japanese emperors – long before the emergence of Buddhism – could be found the Kamudoko, a polished stone bed on which the emperors would lie to seek enlightenment from the gods. And every Roman Legion had a soothsayer – a priest who would be called upon to consult the oracles and shrines. He would interpret dreams to see if the omens boded well. The soothsayer was every bit as important to legionnaires as their weaponry and battle tactics.

Arguably, it was in ancient Greece where dream study truly began to flourish. They erected magnificent ‘dream temples’ solely for the purpose of analysing and greek dream templesinterpreting dreams. Among the philosophers of the time were Aristotle and Plato who believed that man himself was the true source of dreams, and not the gods. Their notions have persisted over the centuries, becoming popularised in the writings of psychoanalysts, Sigmund Freud and Carl Gustav Jung. They also believed that dream content was in some way derived from personal experience – a premise on which contemporary opinion is based.

There are many schools of thought concerning dreams and their interpretation. Freud sigmund freudthought that sex played a significant role in our dreams, because it is a powerful driving force and has an important role in our everyday lives. In our waking lives sex is repressed by social restrictions and conventions. In our dreams, however, there are no such restrictions. Adolescent males frequently experience frank sexual encounters in their dreams. These are commonly referred to as ‘wet dreams’ because they invariably result in orgasm. Jung recognised, however, that other deep desires drove man.

Clinical studies have proven that we all dream, even animals. Rapid eye movements (REMs), the movement of the eyeball beneath the closed lids, are a sure fire sign that an individual is dreaming. Awaken someone during REM sleep and they will instantlyrem sleep study recall their internal visions. REM sleep occurs about five times over and eight-hour period and follows a period of deep sleep. Why then do some people claim they never dream? The answer is twofold. Either they simply don’t remember their dream, or they are being censored because of their content. After all, dreams are a true expression of whom and what we are; including those desires we care not to admit to.

Dream Types

It is now accepted that during dream-sleep all the things we experience seem real to us because the same information transmitters (neurons) in the brain, which process actual waking episodes, are also at work during sleep. At the same time the brain disregards, to a certain extent, real world distractions, making our dream world one of virtual reality.

Lucid Dreams

Nowhere is this virtual reality more striking than in the lucid dream. The lucid dream is as vivid and real as it gets. At some point the sleeper becomes aware they are dreaming. If they continue to dream whilst in this state of awareness called ‘lucidity’ they can control and steer it in whatever direction they choose. Many problems can be overcome by lucid dreaming. Creative people such as writers get their best ideas from dreams. However, ordinary dreams are subject to half-remembered fleeting images and cannot be summoned on demand. The lucid dreamer can call on any scenario they wish, can play with ideas, and combine conscious elements into their dream before allowing the subconscious to take over.

No one knows why spontaneous lucid dreaming occurs. The brain is supposed to be unconscious during sleep. Clearly, something goes wrong that allows a measure of consciousness to take over. People have used this ‘mistake’ of the brain to their advantage by developing techniques to deliberately induce it.

False Awakenings

False awakening dreams are relatively common and are frequently confused with lucid dreams. At some point in our lives we have all experienced a false or multiple false awakening. The alarm wakes you up. You get up, shower and have your breakfast before setting out for work. You may even experience a full working day before you suddenly realise that you are in fact dreaming. Though the false awakening shares the same ‘clarity’ as a lucid dream the difference is that you are unaware you are dreaming and as such do not have the same level of control as in the lucid dream.


Nightmares can be very distressing to individuals. We have all experienced them at one time or another. They happen less frequently in adults than in children and occur during periods of REM sleep, as opposed to night terrors that occur during NREM (nonrapid eye movement) sleep. Nightmares are characterised by certain physiological responses caused by a feeling of fear, such as increased pulse rate and body sweat. There is no single cause for nightmares. Sometimes physical and/or psychological factors are involved in their creation. Feverish illnesses can certainly cause them, as can the medicinal drugs used to combat the illness. Unusual stress or trauma can also bring them on. Other than for an interrupted sleep, and feelings of irritability, anxiety and depression the following day, nightmares very rarely cause physical harm to the experiencer. There are, however, certain successful visualisation techniques that can be used to ‘neutralise’ nightmares. Lucid dreaming is one such technique.

Enactment Dreams

Dreams deal with emotion. However, not all emotion causes dreams. It is unexpressed emotional arousal in the waking state that causes us to dream. For example, a disagreement with your boss, in which you are unable to vent your true feelings of anger toward him, will probably be enacted in a dream. The dream will take the form of a metaphorical scenario that parallels the real-life experience. In it your boss may be symbolised by a terrible ogre whom you attack and vanquish, thus allowing full expression of your anger. If you continue to ruminate angrily over the same issue the brain will try to solve the problem the same way and will create a repetitive dream in order to do so.

Re-enactment and Problem Solving Dreams

The re-enactment dream is among the commonest of all dreams and is said to be caused by the thoughts in our heads prior to falling asleep, suggesting they are pragmatic in nature. Yet dreams do far more than merely reflect life. When viewed from a subconscious perspective even information can be assessed differently.

august kekuleWhat once seemed an insoluble problem for the German-born scientist; August Kekulé became clarified after a dream. He was pondering over the molecular structure of benzine when he dreamt of a snake swallowing its own tail. From this he realised that if the carbon and attached hydrogen atoms formed a ring the problem of the benzine’s structure could be solved. This 19th century discovery eventually leads mankind into the era of the motorcar and aeroplane.

Precognition Dreams

These dreams are as diverse and as complex as life itself and can offer us insights into who we are, into our hopes, fears and problems. Many possess certain logic and can be explained in such terms. However, a small proportion continues to defy scientific rationale.

On October 21st, 1969, in the Welsh village of Aberfan, 140 people died when half a million tons of coal waste swept over them. Among them was nine-year-old, Eryl Mai Jones who, on the previous evening, told her mother of a strange dream she had in which she saw something black cover her school.


She wasn’t the only one to predict the disaster. Many others are on record as having done so. Because of it, and several other incidents, several bureaus were established. All were dedicated to collating such premonitions in the hope that one day disasters like Aberfan could be avoided. Unfortunately, they did not prove practical.

Symbolism, Metaphors & Puns

We have seen from the foregoing that there are many types of dreams, each is rich in symbolism that is tailored to meet the individual’s needs. The old adage, “One man’s meat is another man’s poison” is an apposite description when considering how to interpret the symbols in a dream. For example, lightning may engender fear in one person and cause exhilaration and awe in another. Clearly then, it is the dreamers waking life perception of the phenomenon which colours the interpretation of the dream.

One Interesting aspect of symbolism is that of dream metaphors and puns. The term “for the chop”, for example, indicates losing one’s job. Anyone experiencing this unenviable situation might well dream of being beheaded. And being called “as thick as a plank” may cause an individual to dream of carrying around with them a stout length of wood which they are unable to put down. Such dream metaphors and puns are the subconscious’ way of getting a message across to the dreamer in terms they are familiar with.

Contemporary Dream Interpretation

In his landmark monograph The Interpretation of Dreams, Freud emphasised dream analysis as a means to unlocking the unconscious mind, which he suspected were composed of repressed psychological material. Modern-day psychoanalysis dream interpretation, however, has seen a fall in popularity. That not withstanding, there is still a body of literature that supports dream interpretation, and continues to provide an influential therapeutic focus.

human mindAt present, there are two prevailing theories about dreams and their relationship with psychoanalysis: the neurophysiologic theory, and the activation-synthesis theory. Nevertheless, neither of these theories has been fully accepted as yet. The human mind is perhaps the single most fascinating mystery man has ever tried to decipher and may never be fully understood for, like man himself, it is in a constant state of evolutionary change and adaptation.

© David Calvert 2011

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Strangeness in Paradise.


 David Calvert

Opposite the Gulfs of Patras and Corinth there lies an island steeped in myth and legend. It is an enigmatic place of mysterious moving rocks and vanishing waters, a land in which the inconceivable appears possible. For County Durham couple, Graham Beckwith and Angela Vale (real name withheld) one such unimaginable event took place when the hired car in which they were travelling seemed, quite literally, to defy the law of gravity.
It was June 1993, and the peak tourist season on Cephalonia was well underway. Like many other visitors to the Greek holiday island, Graham – a then student with BSC honours in environmental studies – and Angela were drawn to this idyll by the promise of unparalleled landscapes and geological contrasts.

Stop Off

Some 16 kilometres still remained of their homeward journey as they drove down the west coast mountain road, a relaxed mood engendering thoughts of the day’s events. It was late afternoon, the temperature was idling in the low 90s, and the village of Simotata now lay several minutes drive behind them.
July-8-2011-a-roadside-memorial-shrine-near-Kampos-village-on-Patmos-IMG_0572As they headed towards the Ionian village of Platie, a roadside shrine, similar to the one shown here,  suddenly piqued Angela’s curiosity. They pulled over and Angela got out of the car to take a better look, leaving Graham behind. Shrines to road accident victims are commonplace in that part of the world and Graham had seen more than enough of them that day.
Sitting in the car, with its motor running, Graham soon realised that his companion was taking a little longer than expected. He disengaged the engine and put the gears into neutral, keeping his foot on the brake pedal to prevent the Fiat rolling downhill. As he awaited Angela’s return he inadvertently shifted his foot from the pedal. Contrary to his expectations, and much to his surprise, the car began reversing uphill, covering a distance of 4-5 metres. Alarmed, he called out to Angela who turned to witness the bizarre spectacle.
“If I hadn’t applied the brakes when I did, Graham said, “I’d have rolled over the edge of the mountain.” Undaunted by his experience he drove back to his original position where, once again, the car duplicated its earlier action.
After arriving at their apartment some time later, the couple suddenly realised that Graham’s Sharp camcorder had lain, forgotten in the confusion, on the rear seat of the Fiat. They determined then to return to the spot to hopefully video a recurrence of the bewildering phenomenon.

A Chance Encounter

A further twist was added to the tale when on the following evening, having returned from a prearranged sightseeing tour, Graham and Angela met up with Norwich couple, Jill Palmer and Nigel Ashwood, to whom they related their strange story. Incredibly, the pair knew the precise location and described the area in detail – even down to the broken tile perched on top of the shrine. Mr. Ashwood went on to describe a disquieting episode at the site, which had caused both him and his partner to leave prematurely, with the distinct feeling that there was something “weird” and “threatening” about the place.

Video Footage

The following day, Friday, June 9, Graham and Angela returned to the shrine and, after several abortive attempts, managed to secure on film the gravity-defying Fiat in action. The gradient of the road and its direction of inclination are not readily obvious when viewing the video footage, which might lead the viewer to think that they were perhaps mistaken about it and that the car was, in actual fact, facing downhill. If this was the case, then why did it take several attempts before the Fiat responded? This fact, and the continued assertions of the others involved, can only lead one to conclude that something extraordinary did occur that day… or did it?
Several enquiries were made by this author to independent sources to ascertain whether an electrical or mechanical fault in the vehicle could account for its odd behaviour. They were met with the same swift and unequivocal response: “Impossible!”
Sceptics may theorise that the entire scenario was staged for notoriety or financial gain. Neither of these hypotheses fit. Any notoriety produced by their story could only have served to exacerbate and already troubled personal history, and there has certainly never been any question of payment regarding their tale.
Many years passed following  Graham and Angela’s strange encounter, and they had yet to discover the truth behind the mystery that beleaguered their minds with so many questions and speculations.  My involvement in this case added further to those speculations, as the following demonstrates:

Spontaneous PK & the ‘Hutchinson Effect’

Perhaps the answer lies in the exhaustive researches of German-born physicist, Helmut Schmidt who has amassed a dramatic and powerful body of evidence for the existence of spontaneous psychokinesis (PK). This apparent ability of certain individuals to exert, consciously or otherwise, an influence over people or objects causing them to move or levitate is well documented in the annals of psychical research.
There may, of course, be a more natural explanation for the gravitational anomaly, involving low-iron ball floatingpower electromagnetic (EM) fields. Canadian amateur scientist, John Hutchinson has been conducting research since 1981 into the bizarre effects of EM fields. He has recorded a range of phenomena in his laboratory involving the levitation of heavy objects, unusual luminous phenomena (balls of light), magneto-acoustic effects (the sounds of heavy footsteps and cracking whips), the deformation of metal bars, and much more.
Whilst these phenomena are due to the devices he employs in his laboratory to artificially create overlapping EM fields there is a growing body of evidence which suggests something similar occurs in the outside environment. In today’s world the proliferation of mobile phone relay towers,EM fields microwave repeaters, CB radios, radar equipment, TV stations and their boosters, radio frequency transmitters and a host of other telecommunication systems, combine to make electromagnetic hot spots. These fields mix with natural energies from the earth such as geological fault lines and subterranean water courses to create an electromagnetic environment similar to those recorded in Hutchinson’s laboratory. Might not this phenomenon also be responsible for the mysterious vanishing waters and moving rocks for which the island is noted?
Finally, it is perhaps interesting to observe that the effect of these intermodulating fields on the human brain can cause individuals to experience a sense of anxiety and menace, as was reported by Nigel Ashwood and Jill Palmer.
You will recall at the beginning of this blog [paragraph 2], the island is noted for its ‘unparalleled landscapes and geological contrasts’.  It is this author’s opinion that what was experienced in this case was an optical illusion created by the topographical surroundings.  Optical illusions are images or pictures that we perceive differently than they really are. Put another way, optical illusions occur when our eyes send information to our brains that tricks us into perceiving something that does not match reality.  In this case the lay of the land isn’t all it appears to be. What looks like an uphill incline is actually a downhill inclined surface. There are many  similar geological  landscapes across the world that share the same characteristics, but which are know to be optical illusions. One such is “Gravity Hill”.


© David Calvert 2011

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A Strange History

David Calvert

euripides‘Time will reveal everything. It is a babbler, and speaks even when not asked’. So wrote the ancient Greek dramatist, Euripides. Certainly, it has revealed, in part, a human history replete with strange sights in the skies, powerful beings, and age-old artefacts that cast doubt on our understanding of archaeological, scientific and historical perspectives. Though we should perhaps view these aberrances with a healthy dose of scepticism, it would be unwise to ignore them out of hand.

Long before the advent of the written word, prehistoric man depicted scenes of everyday life through literal drawings or paintings. One such cave painting (circa 2000 BCE), discovered between the border of Russia and China is one such artefact. But what had its originator witnessed that caused him to paint images of what, to all intents and purposes, are a space suited entity standing beneath a saucer-shaped UFO emitting a plume of smoke from its underbelly, while in the foreground stands another entity holding what appears to be a disc-shaped device.

How do we square such imagery with orthodox science? Is it remotely possible for a prehistoric man to depict a scene of a modern day phenomenon by chance alone, or is Flying-saucers-Jungthe image evidence of the archetypal phenomenon Carl Gustav Jung wrote of in his 1959 book. Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth Of Things Seen In The Sky? His theory states that when a UFO (in its literal sense) manifests itself, its imagery is such that it stimulates powerful unconscious mental processes in the mind of the witness. These unconscious processes, in turn, are released into the conscious mind of the observer causing them to give meaning to what they have seen. Cultural and personal expectations colour the interpretation of the sighting. The projected meaning is then passed on, ad infinitum, to others and is perpetuated and strengthened over time. In this instance, however, the originator of the painting appears not to have ascribed it to any deity, but has merely depicted exactly what he/she saw.

The Hieroglyphs of Thutmose III

Hieroglyphics are one of the earliest known forms of writing and here, too, there are disconcerting and troublesome anomalies. The papyrus text of Pharaoh Thutmose III (1504 – 1450 BCE), found among the papers of a director of the Vatican’s Egyptian museum, recorded aerial phenomena reminiscent to that of the Mexican UFO wave of the 1990s. This is considered to be the first sighting on record.

It began with “… a circle of fire coming in the sky …it had no head (not a comet), the breath of its mouth had a foul odour. Its body was one rod (5 m) long and one rod wide. It had no voice“. After some days the UFOs began to multiply, becoming … “more numerous in the sky than ever.” and extending to …“the limits of the four supports of the heavens.” Eventually, they climbed high and headed south.

While it is possible that some form of hysterical contagion was responsible for the sighting there are, nevertheless, curious aspects to these UFOs that are noteworthy: their bright circular appearance, their peculiar smell, and their silent manoeuvres seem to mirror contemporary UFO accounts.


flying shieldsOccasionally, UFOs are seen to take a hand in human affairs. No lesser personage than Alexander the Great was allegedly aided in his conquest of the besieged city of Tyre by five “flying shields”, moving in triangular formation. The year was 322 BCE. The largest of the circling UFOs suddenly shot a beam of light at the city wall, breaching its defences. Alexander’s army then poured into the city whilst the UFOs hovered overhead. When the citadel was secured, they flew off.

Personal research, however, has cast doubt on the authenticity of these events and reflects on the credibility of an earlier account Alexander was supposed to have had with UFOs at Jaxartes, India. In his work ‘Anabasis of Alexander’, the second century Greek historian, Flavius Arrianus, attributes the cities downfall to an intricate siege work that made it possible for Alexander’s army to scale the150 ft high walls, with not a “flying shield” in sight.


ezekiel's wheel

Even the Bible is not spared the Ancient Astronaut Hypothesis. The story of Ezekiel’s wheel (595 BCE) has become a testament to its proponents of things extraterrestrial. It is one of the most controversial theories in ufological circles. Here the biblical prophet portrays a craft that NASA scientist, Joseph F Blumrich claims we are all familiar with. Even allowing for some variation in Blumrich’s design, other commentators agree that Ezekiel’s description is that of a helicopter-like craft, comprising of a capsule supported on four legs, each containing helicopter units having folding rotors and retractable wheels. ‘Might Ezekiel’s description of the “living creatures” with four faces and four wings be his way of describing the legs and the four rotor units?’ Blumrich asks. He estimates that the spacecraft was 29 meters (95 feet) in width from rotor tip to rotor tip. If you add just 2 meters on each side for maneuvering room (13 feet extra). You have to ask yourself, who on earth has a house with an internal area at least 108 x 108 feet inside the house without internal walls or support beams.?

bloomrich's interpretaion

The explanation seems plausible only if we assume that Ezekiel had a limited vocabulary and was hard pushed to describe a seemingly superior technological craft. The ancient astronaut proponents would have us believe he interpreted his sighting in the only way he knew – as God. However, Ezekiel had an extensive vocabulary. Hebrew is one of the richest languages known to man. Ezekiel showed great skill in describing complex things in his writings. He certainly had the vocabulary to say things like: silver disc,  round window, big eyes, large head, etc.

Ezekiel 8:1  ‘And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in mine house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell there upon me.’

In the above passage we can see how just how meticulous Ezekiel was in his writings.

This itself begs another question: why didn’t any of the elders of Judah write about such an awe-inspiring event, or even mention it? Could it be that Ezekiel was – describing an epiphany – a moment of sudden and great revelation or realization – as opposed to a physically real event?

One might suppose, given all this alleged ancient superior technology, that something other than cave drawings and ancient texts survived the ravages of time; some tangible ‘nuts and bolts’ evidence of the supposed otherworldly intellects believed by some to have coexisted with man. Below are a few examples of technological discoveries  that appear to be ahead of their time.


baghdadbattery2The 2000-year-old Baghdad battery was discovered by archaeologists in Iraq in 1936. But is it evidence of extraterrestrial know-how, or just simply the remnant of a long lost human civilisation, whose greatness rivalled and exceeded that of our own? The battery consists of all the components that go to make up a working battery cell. When researchers made up a replica of it, substituting battery acid for fruit juice, it produced a half volt of electricity with enough power to coat artefacts with silver or gold, a technique known to us today as electroplating. Such a discovery points to a knowledge and advanced technology being in place millennia before the Italian physicist Alessandra Volta (1745-1827) invented the first modern battery in 1800.



antykithera mechanismParts of what is believed to be an early astrolabe (a device that is used to measure the altitudes of planets and stars) were recovered from a shipwreck in the eastern Mediterranean at the turn of the 20th century. Inscriptions on its workings dated it at around 80 BCE. Known as the Antikythera Mechanism, it was X-radiographed in 1971 and it revealed a remarkably sophisticated internal arrangement of dials, gears, and graded plates. Following an in-depth study of this unique instrument and its mechanisms, Professor Derek de Solla Price concluded that it must have been some form of computing device for studying the movements of the Sun, Moon, and planets. Whatever its function, it is a technology far in advance of its time. Babylonian priests possessed knowledge of Jupiter’s four largest moons, the phases of Venus, and seven satellites belonging to Saturn, long before Galileo (1564-1642) invented the telescope and made astronomical observations, finally establishing the Copernican theory of the universe.


However we interpret them, these and other anomalies have been with us since the earliest times. Only now are some beginning to seriously question their provenance. Labelling them as oddities, fanciful anecdotes, quirks, and hoaxes, simply because they challenge our worldview of history is unscientific. To ignore them is to deny our  heritage – whatever that might ultimately prove to be.

White, Michael (1997): The X Factor, issue 12, Marshall Cavendish Partworks Ltd. Brookesmith, Peter (1995): UFO: The Complete Sightings Catalogue, BCA.
Story, Ronald D (ed.) (2002): The Mammoth Encyclopedia of Extraterrestrial Encounters, Constable & Robinson Ltd.
Blumrich, Joseph F (1974): The Spaceships of Ezekiel, Bantam.
Watson, William H (March/April 1999): UFO Magazine, Quest Publications International Ltd.
Alford, Alan F (September/October 1997): UFO Magazine, Quest Publications International Ltd.

© David Calvert 2011

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