Winds of Change



David Calvert

By 1952, in places as far apart as Asia, Africa, the Americas and Europe, sightings of UFOs had almost reached epidemic proportions. In all its manifestations it had become a global phenomenon, with literally hundreds of sightings reported monthly. At its height those figures gradually stretched into thousands.

Daylight Discs and Lights in the Sky

These were common and reported by people from just about every walk of life, from two military guards and an F-49 Starfire fighter pilot at Chorwon, Korea, who observed a UFO with a dull centre and bright lights and bright rim darting about the sky; to literally hundreds of witnesses who reported sightings of UFOs of all shapes and sizes in Scandinavia and Northern Europe. Perhaps the most dramatic part of the 1952 global wave, however, took place in Washington DC on 19-20 July and 26-27 July.


The Events of 19-20 July occurred between 11:40 p.m. and 5:00 a.m. when radar picked up eight UFOs flying in restricted air space over the capitol. Their rate of speed was judged between 100 and 300 m.p.h. (160-480 km/h), suddenly accelerating to phenomenal velocities. At about this time airline pilots had begun to report strange lights in the sky over the capital. Jet interceptors were vectored to the area; arriving at 3: 30 a.m. Unfortunately the UFOs had disappeared, only to reappear after the jets had departed.

ufos over capitol builingRadar controllers at Andrews Air Force Base, who had been following the events, became stunned when a large orange sphere hovered over their base. Several days later on 26-27 July, from 9:00 p.m, up to twelve UFOs began performing similar manoeuvres. When interceptors were scrambled from Wilmington, Delaware, and came within radar range the UFOs again vanished from sight and their radar screens. They returned ten minutes later when the planes had all left the area. Nevertheless, at approximately 3: 20 a.m. a fresh flight of fighters arrived and this time the UFOs remained visible. A ring of huge blue-white lights that flew away before he was given permission to open fire on them surrounded one of the fighter pilots, Lt. William Patterson.

J Allen HynekSuch encounters were eventually to be dubbed by the renowned Dr. J. Allen Hynek as daylight discs (DDs) and nocturnal lights or lights in the sky (LITS), though the DDs category is somewhat misleading as it covers craft that are not necessarily disk-shaped. His classification scheme, however, was the first of its kind and despite recent additions remains the foundation for any serious ufological study.

Radar visuals (RVs) also fall under the Close Encounters of the First kind (CE I) category. The Patterson encounter falls under the second category as CE II (Close Encounter of the Second Kind), the objects appearing to interact with him.

Photographic Evidence

In the main the photographic evidence for CE Is and CE IIs has changed little, despite the advent of the camcorder and advances in photographic analysis and computer enhancement techniques. Colonel Wendelle Stevens, USAF, is still of the opinion that “Photographs are poor evidence because there are so many things we can do to technically produce images.”

However, optical physicist for the Surface Weapons division of the US Navy, Dr. Bruce Maccabee, who specialises in photographic UFO cases, argues that there are sufficient numbers of impressive cases where it can be established with reasonable conviction that some kind of extraordinary craft have been photographed.


As intriguing as photographic evidence of UFOs may be, it frequently comes down to trent ufolittle more than a light in the sky. This inconclusive phenomenon will never establish absolute proof of alien visitors. The ultimate evidence would be close-up shots of the interior of a UFO. Even though many alleged abductees, from the 1950s onward, have claimed to have been taken inside UFOs none have managed thus far to come forward with the ultimate photograph.

Encountering Otherworldly Entities

Before the term “alien abduction” was coined people were claiming contact with otherworldly creatures that came to visit Earth to pass on messages of goodwill and hand out sound advice. But what are we to make of such claims? On the one hand they are improbable to the point of absurdity, whilst on the other hand they are told with remarkable uniformity and passion.

adamski2Of all the early contactees, Polish immigrant George Adamski is probably the most well-known. His story began on 20 November 1952 when he and several friends allegedly spotted a huge cigar-shaped craft gliding silently into view over the Mojave Desert, California. Hoping to get a better view of the object, and perhaps even some photographs, he and two companions drove off into the desert. It was here he claimed to have seen and photographed the now famous saucer-shaped “scout ship” and encountered a 1.6 metre tall entity called Orthon who told him he was from Venus and had come to Earth to warn mankind of the dangers of nuclear energy and pollution – a common theme that persists up to the present day.

Adamski was later to receive worldwide celebrity status as the world’s first alien contactee. He recounted wild tales of travelling through space and of visiting the Moon, which was peopled by lunar citizens. However, humanity’s first tentative steps out into the solar system eventually proved his claims to be false. Although regarded as an out-and-out fraudster by many, there are a few ufologists such as Timothy Good who see merit in at least some of his claims.

The Abduction Experience

The contactee era of the 1950s gradually spilled over into the 1960s, with sightings of UFOs and their occupants becoming increasingly common, as did the abduction scenario. One of the best-documented cases of abduction is that of Betty and Barney Hill.

The characteristic nature of abduction cases ultimately began with the Hills in the 1960s, contrasting sharply with the infamous contactee cases of the 1950s.

The Hill’s story began late one night on 19 September 1961. The couple, which lived in New Hampshire, USA, were returning home from a short holiday when Betty saw a bright light close to the Moon. As they drove it appeared to be getting brighter so they pulled over and took a closer look. Barney thought it was an aeroplane so they drove on, but the object seemed to draw closer and got brighter and seemed to be circling the car. He pulled over again, and they watched the object drop behind some nearby trees. When Barney got out and walked towards it he saw a disc-shaped object with what appeared to be windows through which he glimpsed some strange-looking occupants. He returned to the car in a panic and drove home.


When they arrived at their destination they discovered the journey had taken two and a half hours longer than it should have. As well as the “missing time” episode they began to experience other symptoms: they were both exhausted and had nightmares and high blood pressure. The doctors who tested and examined them could find nothing wrong. Eventually a reputable scientist put them under hypnosis and revealed a classic abduction story.

According to the evidence retrieved through hypnotic regression, the UFO had landed beside the road and rendered the Hills semiconscious. Small beings – similar in appearance to the alien entities called Greys – then took them forcibly on board the craft where they were separated and given medical examinations. Barney had semen extracted, and Betty underwent the painful experience of having a long needle inserted into her abdomen, as a form of pregnancy test she was told; a similar procedure that was carried out on Betty Andreasson Luca in 1967. Interestingly, although Betty Hill has always maintained her examination was non-sexual, some observers have speculated that the Hill’s case is one of the first to indicate an interest in our genetic makeup by the aliens.

One of the main aims of alleged alien visitation appears to be genetic experimentation, to create some type of hybrid baby, part human, part alien. As a result of the Betty and Barney Hill abduction, which is now considered a landmark in UFO history, ufology itself began to acquire greater discipline and credibility through the adoption of more systematic research methods.


hybridsMany extraordinary patterns have emerged concerning alien abduction, but the one most guaranteed to needle sceptics is that of alien implants – miniature devices that are inserted into the frontal part of the brain via the nose, the back of the head, through and just behind the ears, in the forearms and wrists and just about any other private parts of the human anatomy.

The Richard Price implant was unusual to say the least, in that he claimed it had been implanted into his penis by extraterrestrials.

In late autumn of 1964 he confided this to his girlfriend, who betrayed his trust and told his high school classmates. This earned him the nickname “spaceman”. Their incessant badgering of him resulted in him threatening another student and he was sent to a mental hospital for observation. Seventeen years later he was examined by Neal Rzepkewski, M.D., who discovered a subcutaneous “foreign body” roughly 4mm long and 1mm in diameter. His recommendation was that no further action be taken unless it caused him pain or discomfort.

In the spring of `81 or `82 Price experienced three hours of missing time while driving a taxi. It was later revealed, under hypnotic regression, that his taxi had been raised into a UFO. By 1989 the top of the implant was protruding slightly from the top of his skin and he called David E. Pritchard, PhD. Physics, on several occasions explaining his story. By August of that year it had dislodged, causing a sense of electric shock, and fell into Price’s hand. He placed the implant into a clean film container and delivered it to Pritchard.

Exhaustive tests were carried out on the artefact and it was discovered the implant had a uniform core of a brownish translucent material, partly covered with a whitish layer through which a number of appendages projected. It was roughly cylindrical, about 1mm in diameter and 3mm long. Interior examination of the core through a microscope revealed a crystalline material. This became considerably harder after being exposed to the air for several months; so hard in fact that a scalpel blade broke while trying to cut the core material.

Two small fragments of the core were mass analysed and the results showed mainly carbon and oxygen with all other elements including nitrogen, below the 2. % level. The appendages, revealed under higher magnification and scanning electron microscope, showed various other features. One of the appendages showed a threefold structure at the end, one of which was a hook. Another showed a flattish cross-section with random twisting. The ends of several appendages were noted to be red in colour. These structured ends had an overall size of 10 to 30 microns and were witnessed at the ends of four of the appendages. Pritchard looked for similar objects in different micro worlds. His conclusions were based on a professional scientific and clinical study of the highest order. His analysis showed nothing unterrestrial about the Price artefact. It did not appear to be fabricated, but bore the overall characteristics of something that grew. Its elemental and chemical constituents were also consistent with earthly biological origins.

For cynics this is proof positive that there are no such things as alien artefacts. However, in his conclusion Price also stated that it was possible that aliens could be clever enough to make devices that serve their purpose yet appear to have a prosaic origin as natural products of the human body.

Some questions still remain unanswered. Chiefly: how did Price predict the morphology of his implant before it was noticeable, and what function did it serve? Physician, Dr. Roger Leir’s examination of an alleged T-shaped implant, taken from an abductee, led his co-worker and electrical engineer, Bob Beckwith, to speculate that their artefact, which had a peculiar band of silicate crystals completely encircling the vertical rod, could be equated to a crystal radio receiving set.

The EBE Development

Reports of contacts with and abductions by EBEs (Extraterrestrial Biological Entities) form the High Strangeness band of the UFO spectrum. This stems from the fact that there is almost a total lack of consistency in reports of alleged contact. Over the last 50 years the EBE morphology has been described variously as tall, small, thin, fat, human-like, grotesque, saintly, covered in fur, hairless, with long arms, short arms, hands, claws, large heads, headless, friendly, indifferent, aggressive, appear solid, able to pass through solid objects, and levitate.

EBEs and their purported messages range from the bizarre to the comical, can be benevolent, uncaring or even sinister, but according to one of Britain’s UFO researchers, Peter Hough, they will always be outrageous, because to our computerised and regimented way of thinking, in the final analysis, it all appears insane.

Military and Government Involvement

Friedman bookStanton T. Friedman’s book Top Secret/Majic is undoubtedly the most explosive book yet written on the subject of covert governmental involvement concerning UFOs and their occupants. Despite the assurances by the US military and government that their interest in the phenomenon ceased in 1969 with the closure of the old Air Force Project Blue Book – the most extensive and more or less unclassified study of UFO sightings – there is a growing body of evidence which suggests otherwise.

The Cash/Landrum incident of 1980 is just one of many cases in which unmarked military aircraft are seen to be interacting with UFOs. Serious illness and death followed in the wake of this encounter.

In Britain, too, there appeared to be an ongoing government cover-up regarding the Rendlesham Forest incident, in which a triangular-shaped craft reportedly landed near a US military base.


rendlesham ufoThe incident was examined by former under-secretary of the Ministry of Defence, Ralph Noyes, who rounded on his former employers saying that they had lied about the case, and had covered it up.

The small town of Dulce, New Mexico, came to prominence in the late 1980s following a series of alleged abductions in which sensational reports of covert liaisons with “alien greys” and factions of the US military were made public. The reports suggested the US had basically traded land and facilities for alien technology, and that several projects had been activated between the two parties, including genetic experimentation for the purpose of creating alien/human hybrids.

The Coming of the Hybrids

David_M.JacobsAt the Project Awareness UFO and Metaphysical Convention in Tampa, Florida, David M. Jacobs, an Associate Professor of History at Temple University in Philadelphia, and a leading academic authority on UFOs and abductions, gave his wide-ranging assessment of the UFO abduction phenomenon to John Chambers. Jacobs believes that in the beginning it was a random selection from all ethnic groups who had nothing particularly in common either physiologically or mentally. The children of the abductees would themselves become abductees and so the term random selection no longer applied.

This immediately became an intergenerational phenomenon. Through normal population growth you then get a spreading out, a cone-like effect throughout society. What once started out as small gradually becomes larger and larger as the generations grow, until you get more and more people coming forward with their abductions stories. A conservative estimate given at the time was around two million people. However, polls and questionnaires suggested as many as five million – a very large phenomenon. As to human/alien hybrids, Jacobs had this to say: “This is a programme that has a beginning, a middle, and an end. Our best guess is that we are in the end point of the programme, and that the end point will be relatively soon, perhaps as little as the next twenty years.”

In that context he cited three changes that have taken place. The frequency of abductions has increased greatly. And, very importantly, there has been a great increase in adult hybrid activity in UFOs and on Earth. The adult hybrid activity on board UFOs, he explained, consists of helping the smaller grey aliens with their procedures, acting as assistants or aids. But, in some cases, hybrid directed abductions have been reported.

What the goal of this alien agenda is remains highly speculative, but the more Jacobs learns about the phenomenon the more pessimistic his view of the future becomes. When asked what we could do about it his reply was, “Absolutely nothing. The aliens have an incredibly advanced technology. They can do what they want to do. That’s the bottom line.”

Changes of Perspective

Possibly the greatest changes to have taken place in alien abduction/contact cases over the last half-century has been in the way they are perceived. Despite their being numerous alternate theories, the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH) has remained popular ever since the Kenneth Arnold sighting, due largely to the media having ignored them and the promotion of TV programmes such as the cult sci-fi series The X Files.

One of its central themes is that aliens are visiting the Earth, and that humans are being abducted by some of them on a regular basis. “This is not simply a product of the programme-maker’s imagination,” writes Michael White, “but an idea that has become so entrenched in a range of Earth cultures as to have become almost a cliché. The only thing so far missing”, he continues, “is hard irrefutable proof to support the idea.”

Thanks largely to the likes of scientists such as Michael Persinger, et al; the long overdue and serious scientific study of the UFO phenomenon is now being redressed. As with all hypotheses theirs, too, possess both strengths and weaknesses. Most importantly, however, the UFO dilemma is now subject to rigorous scientific criteria and, as Persinger himself declared, “can be resolved by precise numerical analyses.”

© David Calvert 2011

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Deadly UFO Confrontations.


David Calvert


Cpt. Thomas Mantell


thomasmantellAt around 2.45pm on January 7 1948, Captain Thomas Mantell arrived at Godman Field, near Fort Knox, Kentucky, on a ferrying flight. Accompanying him were five F-51s of the US Air National Guard. Before they could land an order was given to intercept a UFO which had been observed at around 1.20pm, hovering in the sky near the base. One fighter, low on fuel, was forced to land whilst Mantell and the others went in pursuit of the UFO.

Having reached an altitude of 15,000 ft (4,500m), two of Mantell’s wingmen peeled off and returned to Godman because their aircraft lacked the necessary oxygen demanded by USAF regulations when flying in excess of 14,000 ft (4,200m). Shortly after, Mantell radioed the control tower confirming visual contact with the UFO, which he described as “metallic and tremendous in size.” It appeared to be moving, he said, at about half his speed.

At 22,000 ft (6,600m) Lt. B A Hammond informed Mantell that he and his remaining pilot were abandoning the intercept, but he failed to respond and continued to climb. By 3.15pm he was lost to sight, and as there were no further calls from him a search was initiated almost immediately.

The wreckage of his P-51 Mustang was eventually located shortly after 5.00 pm on a farm in Franklin, Kentucky. His body was still inside it and his watch had stopped at 3.18pm, suggesting the time of impact.

Captain “Jim” F Duesler was a crash investigator stationed at Godman Field at the time and was required to attend the crash scene. He did so in the company of two other men. The trio were to make some strange discoveries concerning the crash, which had taken place in a small clearing surrounded by tall trees. When they arrived, Mantell’s body had already been taken away.

Military personnel who were present at the time were perplexed by the condition the body was in. The skin, they told Duesler, showed no signs of having been punctured or penetrated, despite all the bones in his body been completely crushed and pulverized. Duesler’s findings on inspection of the wreckage was equally strange. It looked as if the Mustang had “belly flopped” into the clearing. Because there was no damage to the surrounding trees it was obvious there had been no forward or sideways motion when the plane had crashed

Further investigations proved just as puzzling. The normally two foot wide fuselage,engineprop which was virtually undamaged, was now only nine inches wide. The condition of the propeller blades brought the investigators to the conclusion that they had not been rotating at the time of impact. The impact itself mystified Duesler. Because of the Mustang’s heavy front engine it should have nose-dived into the ground. This clearly was not the case. He went on to state: “There was no indication of any mechanical fault with the aircraft just prior to the crash. If there had been we would have expected Mantell to report this over the intercom. No such report was received.”

The official Army Air Force’s verdict was pilot error and the case was officially stamped ‘closed’ and the true circumstances of what had occurred entered the Project Saucer files, a secretive investigation group operating out of Wright-Patterson Army Air Field in 1948. Mantell, the AAF (Army Air Force) concluded, had blacked out due to lack of oxygen whilst trying to intercept a high altitude weather balloon.

Cultural Mood
In early 1948 the mood of the times was being reflected in films depicting aliens and their craft as being hostile, and so it was hardly surprising that rumours began to surface that one such invader had shot down Mantell.

the day the earth stood stillIn the 1950s the cultural mood had become distinctly bipolar. The movie, The Day the Earth Stood Still portrayed humanity, and not the aliens as a threat to world peace. Whereas in 1956, the film Invasion of the Body Snatchers showed aliens taking over human bodies in their conquest of the Earth. Both films demonstrate the uncertain light in which the UFO phenomenon was seen.

Venus or weather balloon?
At first the USAF seemed uncertain as to the cause of the Mantell crash, first explaining the UFO as the planet Venus and then later as a weather balloon – or a combination of both. It is now generally believed that what Mantell was chasing was a Skyhook balloon, secretly launched by the US Navy at the time, a scenario often touted by the military to explain away UFOs. The now famous Roswell Incident springs readily to mind.

To date, four possible scenarios have been given to account for Mantell’s death. The first suggests that he succumbed to oxygen starvation whilst chasing the planet Venus. This is unlikely, given that he was an experienced pilot and would not have mistaken the planet other than for what it was.

The second, that he succumbed to oxygen starvation whilst chasing a Skyhook balloon. This is entirely possible. However, independent witnesses of the Mantell UFO described it as an “inverted ice-cream cone” which suggests the balloon was flying upside down!

The third and fourth scenarios, put forward by commentators of the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis (ETH), suggests that Mantell was fired upon by aliens out of self-defence, or that he fell foul of the“power field” generated by their craft. The general consensus of opinion however is that Mantell’s death was the result of an unfortunate accident.

Political Aspects
Following the Kenneth Arnold sighting of 1947, Americans and Europeans were ready to assume that “flying saucers” were from outer space. The idea of space exploration had already been mooted before WWII, and during the conflict German rocket technology had advanced spectacularly. Little wonder then that the USSR and USA rushed to recruit German scientists and technicians after the hostilities had ceased. The Americans feared that the USSR would soon develop its own nuclear capabilities, thus making an invasion of the US feasible. Its citizens and military were obsessed with the fear of communist invasion, and so the political anxieties of the time concerning invasions of all kinds and the idea of life in space came together in an odd sort of marriage. The ‘logic’ at the time was that if UFOs were not of terrestrial origin then they had to come from outer space, thus giving birth to the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis, which has remained popular ever since.

A Place in History
Here, as in so many UFO cases, a clever disinformation programme was initiated to stifle the truth behind the Mantell affair. The Department of Defence (DoD) issued an official report that they claimed was made by Captain Duesler. Duesler has denied ever writing such a report to any authority and claims the DoD report is a fake and full of flaws.

During an interview with UFO investigator Tony Dodd, Duesler said that the faked statement included the words: ‘Certified A True Copy – James F. Duesler, Jr. Captain USAF.’  This had to be false because Duesler did not serve in the United States Air Force, but the US Army Air Corps before the inception of the USAF.

Even if we assume that Mantell died as a result of chasing a high altitude weather balloon, it does not explain the bizarre state of the wreckage and its occupant at the crash site.

To inject further mystery to this already unusual story, Duesler met a Dr. Loading, an aeronautical engineer who came in from Wright Field, Ohio, on the day after his initial investigation. Loading told Duesler that he was in charge of what he called the ‘Saucer Project‘, and that they were aware of high saucer activity taking place in and around large military exercises. Interestingly, just such an exercise had been taking place at Camp Campbell some fifty miles away on the day Mantell crashed.

Loading also went on to indicate that they were aware of the extraterrestrial nature of these craft and said, “Thank God they are not hostile, otherwise we wouldn’t stand a chance.”

Military history records Mantell’s death as due to ‘pilot error’, and who could argue otherwise? We can only speculate on what might have confronted him on that fateful day. His last message that it was “metallic and tremendous in size” leaves us with some intriguing possibilities.

CASE #2:

The Cash/Landrum - landrum


Case Background:

On a lonely road near to Huffman, East Texas, Betty Cash, Vickie Landrum and Colby Landrum (Vickie’s grandson), who were making a journey to Dayton, Texas, USA, saw a bright light in the sky ahead of them. When they drew nearer to the light, they saw that it was an object of some kind. Vickie described it as “A diamond on fire.”

The UFO had flames shooting out from the bottom of it. Its centre was ringed with blue lights or spots. When they were approximately 60 metres from the object, Betty stopped the car and all three got out to take a closer look. When Colby became afraid, he and Vickie got back in the car, followed a couple of minutes later by Betty, who had to use the sleeve of her jacket to open the door.

As they watched the UFO move away they all saw a large number of single rotor and landcashtwin rotor helicopters come into view. After resuming their journey they could see the UFO and helicopters from the main highway, before turning off toward Dayton and home.

The case wasn’t to end here, however. Some time later all three witnesses suffered some kind of after effects, which some have attributed to radiation exposure. Vickie and Betty suffered from a considerable amount of hair loss and all three experienced skin burns, headaches, vomiting, eye irritation and diarrhoea. Betty suffered the worse and was hospitalised several times, eventually developing breast cancer.

Cultural Note.

Several ideas were put forward by the UFO community regarding the origins of the Cash/Landrum UFO. In general they broadly reflect the spectrum of positions that ufologists take regarding such craft. They are as follows:

  •  A top secret atomic powered military aircraft that bore no relation to extraterrestrial UFOs. (Author’s note: If this was secret terrestrial technology why would the military choose to test fly it over a populated area?)
  • A top-secret military device piloted by ETs.
  •  UFO piloted by human pilots.

Political Aspects.

In 1986 an attempt was made to sue the US government for $30 million dollars damages as a result of the encounter. Because the US army, navy or airforce denied owning or operating such a craft the case was thrown out, with neither of the defendants or witnesses uttering a word. The question remains: who owned and who piloted the CH-47 twin-blade Chinook helicopters that appeared to be escorting or pursuing the UFO? We may never know the truth for sure.

Its Place in History.

That Betty and her companions had come into contact with something physically real that night, and was not an hallucination, is unassailably true. The symptoms they displayed following their encounter were consistent with exposure to microwave, ultraviolet and X-ray radiation too severe to be self-inflicted. But what had caused their great suffering? The principal investigator of the case, John Schuessler, interviewed airforce generals and congressmen about the incident. Their answers turned out to be contradictory or downright lies. It seemed they were going to great lengths to deny the entire event, despite further witnesses coming forward from the outskirts of Houston to say that they too had seen bright lights and helicopter activity that night.

Peter Gersten – a lawyer specialising in such cases – clearly believed a military cover-up had taken place and that the craft that irradiated his client was of US origin and not extraterrestrial. Though his attempt to sue the government failed, the case brought to the fore the need for accountability. It was a brave stance that sent out an unequivocal message to the powers that be and the shadowy, covert groups who do their bidding.

For Betty Cash that accountability will never be realised. Some years later, on the exact same date as the encounter occurred, she died from cancer. Hers is a case worthy of a place in UFO history, not least because of her great suffering but because she dared to make answerable to the people the role the government and military played in the affair.

© David Calvert 2011

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Aliens and Hypnotic Regression.

Hypnosis and Hypnotic Regression:

A Critical Evaluation On their Use In Alien Abduction Cases

David Calvert

Background of Theory

Over one hundred and fifty years ago Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815), the modern father of hypnosis, attempted to raise the art of hypnotic suggestion to the level of practical science but, like many of his successors, he maintained a mystic attitude toward the problem as far as serious study of the field was concerned.

Franz Anton MesmerAs a result hypnotism acquired a bad reputation that persisted during many years and still is not completely dispelled. Its later utilisation by charlatans made the serious study of the phenomenon less reputable. Honest men were extremely wary lest their sincere interest in it brought them into disrepute.

Thankfully, under the pressure of expanding knowledge, all pressure collapses and hypnosis had found acceptance into the family of approved sciences. It has opened new vistas for research and practice. As research gains in courage and depth the theoretical and practical discoveries awaiting us are likely to transcend our best hopes. In the words of M. H. Erickson (1932), “The first and last words which can be said of hypnosis is that it is the most interesting and most profound of all psychological material …”

Throughout the pioneering days of Mesmer, J. M. Charcot (1825 – 93), Emile Couè (1857 – 1926), and Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939), controversy surrounded the use of hypnosis. Even now in the 21st Century the use of hypnotic regression in alien abduction cases is a contentious one.

First used in 1962 on the Betty and Barney Hill case, hypnotic regression is the betty and barney hilltechnique widely used in assessing abductions as the hypnotist regresses the individual back to the time of their alleged abduction. Theoretically, if the individual is genuinely regressed to the time period in question then a variety of psychological and physiological functioning should be reinstated. In other words, the subject will relive the event and display the attendant physical and psychological trauma pertaining to their original encounter.

Since the Hills’ abduction, however, it has been debated as to whether these Hill encountermemories are recalls of actual events or are the product of pseudo memories (an effect that escalates with increased pressure to recall), the product of false-memory syndrome (the influence of the hypnotist’s suggestion during the course of therapy), or fantasy proneness (the ability to hallucinate voluntarily and have imaginary experiences that are as subjectively real as non-fantasised events).

Jenny Randles, and others, are highly suspicious of hypnotic regression techniques used to extract evidence of alien abduction. Indeed, she was instrumental in arranging a moratorium for the British UFO Research Association (BUFORA) that banned its use. She considers regression hypnosis as inherently dangerous.

If hypnotic memory in general is suspect, then hypnotically retrieved memory of abductions must also be suspect. This assumption, however, depends on the extent to which the experimental situation is comparable to that associated with the abduction experience. Abduction memories are characterised by dynamic, emotionally charged events that instil trauma, fear, anxiety, confusion, and anger. What is more, they are characterised by events so unusual as to be outside the range of normal human experience. However, the majority of laboratory research has used static and neutral source material.

Whilst some studies have used more relevant materials for retrieval such as stress inducing stimuli, or simulations of emotionally charged events like accidents or crimes, the results of which are entirely consistent with those using more mundane materials, they still fail to duplicate the quality of “strangeness” of abduction experiences, or the range and magnitude of emotional states associated with reported abductions.

Confirmative Evidence of Theory

hypnosisWhatever causal extent hypnosis plays in false experiences of alien abduction, its potential should increase as a subject’s susceptibility to hypnotic suggestion increases. However this was not borne out by Rodegehier, Goodpaster, and Blattbauer (1991) when they assessed a group of abduction experiencers for hypnotic responsiveness. The group’s ability to vividly imagine suggested scenes, the authors found, were no more susceptible to hypnotic suggestion than the general population.

Spanos, Cross, and Dubrieul, (1993), applied the Carleton University Responsiveness to Suggestion Scale on their experiencer population. The scale measures three dimensions of hypnotisability: number of items to which an appropriate response is made, extent to which the subjective effects called for are experienced, and the degree to which subjects’ responses are perceived as involuntary. They concluded that their experiencer population was no different from the controls on any of these measures.

Thomas Bullard (1994), in a survey of investigators and mental health practitioners, found that “nine out of ten respondents stated that many or most of their abduction experiencer subjects are easy to hypnotise”. This position, however, is not supported by formal tests of hypnotisability. The subjects may be highly hypnotisable in sessions dedicated to exploring their abduction experiences, but they are not highly hypnotisable per se. This may not be as paradoxical as it seems. It may be, as Orne, Whitehouse, and Orne and Dinges (1996) have argued – that the combined effects or relaxation, therapist-hypnotist validation, and repetitive probing create a situation in which “Individuals can be considerably more affected by hypnotic procedures and their behaviourally anchored ratings of hypnotic ability would suggest”.

It may well be that something about the abduction experience itself makes it particularly susceptible to hypnotic procedures – hence the discrepancy between hypnosis scores and the ease in soliciting abduction accounts. Research in this area has already identified several factors that may contribute to the situation:

  •  First, hypnotic recall improves when the material to be remembered is meaningful to the individual, when the emotional, physical, and cognitive conditions of the original experience are hypnotically reinstated, and as context for the event is more highly integrated with the memory to be retrieved. These conditions are common to hypnotic regression for the abduction experience.
  • Second, research on state-dependent learning suggests that returning to the state of consciousness in which an experience originally occurred might improve recall. For example, returning to a state of alcoholic intoxication improves recall of events that transpired whilst in that original condition. If hypnosis produced a mental state that in any way resembles the state during which and abduction is originally experienced, recall for that experience could be enhanced. Indeed, some abductees have described a mental state for the remembered event that is not unlike that reported by other subjects for the experience of being hypnotised.
  • Thirdly, the literature on hypnosis has provided some evidence that information gleaned in an unconscious state (i.e. subliminally) can be retrieved hypnotically. Although this research itself is controversial, it implies that information registered outside of normal consciousness awareness may be accessed during hypnosis. Abduction experiencers often describe knowledge apparently acquired in this manner.

Thomas Bullard (1989) wrote a compelling paper in the Journal of UFO Studies in which he examined the role hypnosis might play in the recollection of supposed alien abduction. He compared abduction accounts under hypnosis and non-hypnosis to see if the hypnotic procedure brought out similarities using different hypnotists. He generated a sequence of events, which appeared common in abduction accounts and compared his accounts with them.

The sequence compared against was:

  •  Capture (Intrusion, a zone of strangeness, time-lapse …)
  • Examination (including preparation, scanning, reproductive examination)
  • Conference.
  • Tour.
  • Otherworldly journey.
  • Theophany (religious message)
  • Return
  • Aftermath (including flashbacks, burns, anxiety, insomnia …)

He also examined the role of the hypnotist to see if they followed the six criteria when examining their abductees:

  • Professional credentials
  • Lack of prior convictions
  • Allow free recall before questioning
  • Avoid leading or demanding questions
  • No one else in the room
  • Memories withheld by post-hypnotic suggestion

From the examination of the hypnotists, only one, Benjamin Simon, actually filled allbenjaminsimon six criteria. He helped Betty and Barney Hill examine their supposed abduction. Initially Simon was never convinced that the case had an ounce of reality, believing that it was a shared fantasy. Transcripts show that he tried everything to trip them up under hypnosis but never succeeded. Only one other hypnotist, Donald Klein, came close, filling five of the criteria.

From dissecting the reports of hypnosis and non-hypnosis accounts, some striking similarities emerged. On the basis of his findings in 1989, Bullard concludes that “The form and content of abduction stories seems independent of hypnosis”, In a more recent study (1994) he concludes that hypnosis is a significant factor in regard to the quantity of material “recovered”, but not in any direct way to the content. He went on to state that the alarm over hypnosis is a false alarm.

Evaluation of Theory

Experiments have shown that hypnotically retrieved memory is often unreliable. However, the degree to which this research can be generalised to the kind of experience reported for abductions is not completely know, and some experimental evidence may actually be consistent with enhanced memory retrieval for this type of experience.

Certainly, this does not imply that investigators or mental health professionals can be casual about the use of hypnosis, or that hypnosis can be exonerated as a causal factor in abduction cases. Also, to dismiss hypnotically retrieved abduction accounts on the basis of what amounts to incomplete research is equally premature.

Simulations of the abduction experience conducted by A. H. Lawson, in which he asked hypnotised subjects to describe events associated with a suggested close encounter with a UFO, showed significant similarities between their imagined events and those of real abduction experiencers. Considered as the only direct test of the role of hypnosis in the abduction experience, sceptics widely cite this study as evidence for the dismissal of hypnotically retrieved memories. Conversely, ufologists (Bullard, 1989) have criticised it because of its methodology, conclusions, and generalisability. Each of these studies could, without doubt, benefit from tighter methodology and closer examination of the content and frequency of the generated reports. For now, however, they suggest that elements of the abduction experience are found in the imaginations of the non-experiencer population, and that consistency in abduction accounts is becoming more difficult to justify as evidence of veridicality.

To date there is no real tangible evidence to support the use of hypnotic regression in proving the veridicality of alien abduction accounts. But is it possible we have alien implantoverlooked a potentially rich field of study in this regard – that of alleged alien implants? Perhaps regression studies conducted on experiencers for the sole purpose of retrieving one or more alleged alien implants from their bodies would come some way to validating their stories. Would not the discovery, removal, and study of such implants, revealed under hypnotic regression, constitute evidence of veridicality, thereby supporting the continued use of hypnosis in alien abduction accounts?


Winn, Ralph B. Ph D (1956): Scientific Hypnotism. Wilshire Book Company.

Blankfort, Michael (1932): ‘Why We Don’t Know Much About Hypnosis’. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology

Randles, Jenny. (1997): First Contact. The X Factor, issue 29. Marshall Cavendish Ltd.

Randles, Jenny (1997): The Paranormal Researcher.The X Factor.

 Apelle, Stuart (1994 a): Hypnosis and the Accuracy of Abduction Memory: Alien Discussions: Proceedings of the Abduction Study Conference held at M. I. T. (pp. 204-208) Cambridge, Mass: North Cambridge Press.

 DePiano, Frank & Salzberg, Herman C. (1981): Hypnosis as an aid to recall of meaningful information presented under three types of arousal. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 383-400.

Zelig, Mark & Beidleman, William B. (1981): The Investigative Use of Hypnosis: A Word of Caution. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. 29, 401-412.

 Brigham, John C., Maass, Anne, Snyder. Larry D., & Spaulding, Kevin (1982): Accuracy of eyewitness identifications in a field setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 42, 673-681.

Malpass, R S., & Devine, P. G. (1980): Realism and eyewitness identification research. Law and Human Behaviour, 4, 347-357.

Sanders, G. S. & Warnick, D. H., (1981): Truth and consequences: The effect of responsibility on eyewitness behaviour. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 2, 67-79.

Rodegehier, Mark, Goodpaster, Jeff, &  Sandra Blatterbauer, (1991): Psychosocial characteristics of abductees: Results from the CUFOS Abduction Project. Journal of UFO Studies, 3, 59-90.

Spanos, Nicholas P., Cross, Patricia A., Dickson, Kirby, & Dubreuil, Susan C (1993): Close Encounters: An Examination of UFO Experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 624-632.

Orne, Martin T., Whitehouse, Wayne G., Orne, Emily Carota, & Dinges, David F (1996): ‘Memories’ of anomalous and traumatic autobiographical experiences: Validation and consolidation of fantasy through hypnosis. Psychological Inquiry. 7, 168-72.

Shields, Ian W., & Jane Knox,  (1986): Level of processing as a determinant of hypnotic hypermnesia Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 358-364.

© David Calvert 2011

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The Hoaxers and the Hoaxed.

 David Calvert

Whether committed as a practical joke or serious fraud, hoaxing has been with us from the earliest times and nothing is sacred to its perpetrators. Great works of art, religious relics, literary works, and so on, have all come under the acquisitive gaze of the fraudster. In most instances they are  motivated by  financial gain, but in these more media-based times notoriety has become the by-word for such acts of wanton deception and the world of ufology has attracted more than its fair share of con artists.

From the birth of the modern UFO era in 1947, with the Kenneth Arnold sighting, a new breed of confidence tricksters emerged. They were to bring disrepute upon the then fledgling study of UFOs and undoubtedly delayed the serious scientific study of the phenomena with their, at times, outlandish claims.

George Adamski [1891-1965]

Adamski is perhaps the most famous individual to emerge from the contactee period. In November 1952 he claimed to have made contact with a UFO pilot from Venus. This claim has since been totally discredited, not least because we now know that Venus isadamski interview an inhospitable planet that cannot possibly harbour life of any kind, let alone intelligent humanoid life. Its surface temperature is hot enough to melt lead and its atmospheric pressure is 94.5 times greater than Earth’s.  This would cause any Venusian, not wearing heavily pressurised body armour, to explode the moment he set foot on our planet.

By looking at his earlier life it is possible to build a character profile of the Polish-born immigrant.

Throughout his twenties and thirties he had a variety of jobs. He served with the National Guard in Portland, Oregon, and was honourably discharged in 1919. He then turned his hand to philosophy in the 1930s, and styled himself ‘Professor George prohibitionAdamski’, founding a monastery in Laguna Beach, California. There he procured a license to produce wine for the monastery during Prohibition. However, much of it was sold on the black market, to the extent that he told two of his followers that he was ‘making a fortune’. Naturally, he was disappointed by the repeal of Prohibition and later commented that had it not been for the legislation of alcohol he would not have had to ‘get into this saucer crap’. This does not bode well for the encounter story he would later tell to the world.

He wrote two books on his encounters, the first, Flying Saucers Have Landed (1953),InsideTheSpaceShipsByGeorgeAdamski-web the second, Inside The Spaceships (1955). Undoubtedly, he was trying to cash in on the phenomenon that had gripped the public’s imagination. The final blow to his claims came in 1955 when four of the people who had been with him on the 20th November 1952 admitted that they had seen nothing of what Adamski claimed. Right up to his death on the 23 rd of April 1965 George Adamski continued to proclaim his accounts were true. There are a few ufologists however who still see merit in some of his claims.

Government cover-up (The Roswell Incident).


Even world governments are not beyond dipping their toes into the murky waters of Roswell crash depictiondeception. When it comes to UFOs and ‘national security’ issues they are arguably the supreme masters. An obvious example of this is the Roswell incident. On July 6th, ‘Mack Brazel, who operated the Foster ranch near the town of Roswell, New Mexico, turned up at Sheriff George Wilcox’s office with pieces of odd wreckage that possessed out of the ordinary properties. He had discovered them, and similar pieces, strewn across a 1-kilometre area of the ranch earlier. The sheriff informed the Roswell army base and spoke with Major Jesse Marcell, the Intelligence Officer for the worlds only atomic bomb unit. Marcell also checked the material and noted its very strange properties.

He informed Colonel William Blanchard, his base commander, of the find. Both Marcell, and Counter-Intelligence Officer, Sheridan W. Cavitt, were ordered to visit the site and collect the debris. Marcell later stated, after viewing the crash site, ‘It was nothing that hit the ground, or exploded on the ground. Its something that must have exploded above the ground, travelling perhaps at a high rate of speed’ … ‘It was quite obvious to me, familiar with air activities, that it was not a weather balloon, nor was it a plain or a missile.’ He and Cavitt filled their vehicles with as much debris as they could hold and made their way back to base.

The following morning, after sealing off the area, Col. Blanchard sent soldiers and military police to the ranch to make a detailed search. Meanwhile, back at the RAAF base, Press Officer, Lieutenant Haut issued a press release stating that a ‘flying disc’ had been captured. The news was heard on local radio and made the evening editions of the local papers. It was shortly after that the cover story came into effect.

Roswell Daily Record

By now Major Marcell had been instructed to take himself and the wreckage to Wright Field (now Wright-Patterson Air Force Base) in Ohio. On the way he stopped off at the headquarters of the Eighth Air Force, Fort Worth. No sooner had he landed at Fort Worth when he was approached by General Roger Ramey and told, ‘Don’t say anything. I’ll take care of it’. He was acting on the instructions of Colonel Thomas Jefferson DuBose, the Chief of Staff at Fort Worth, who in turn was acting on the instructions of General Clemens McMullen, the Acting Director of Strategic Air Command in Washington who had gotten wind of the press release and had ordered DuBose to invent a cover story.

There then followed a photo session in which Marcell posed with bogus wreckage of a weather balloon and radar reflector made of foil and wooden sticks.

The press were then told that a mistake had been made and that it was not a flying disc that had been recovered, but a radar reflector. This cover story went out at about 5 pm, central time, and Marcell was sent back to Roswell and forbidden to speak to anyone. Claims that army personnel also discovered alien bodies and the main body of the UFO at the site began to circulate.

More recently a counter-claim that it was Brazel and several others who discovered the remains of four extraterrestrials has come to light. If this were true Cavitt and Marcell would have been informed of this by Brazel prior to their inspecting the crash site.

The military has changed its story as to the provenance of the so-called alien bodies on occasion. At one point they claimed they were rhesus monkeys, used as part of a military space-travel experiment, which later changed to artificial human crash test dummies, dropped from high altitudes in human endurance experiments. The latter story certainly isn’t true as test dummies were not used until the 1950s, nor, would they account for the small stature of the alleged creatures found at the ranch.

It is beyond dispute that the military were, and still are, trying to keep secret what crashed that night at Roswell. Some researchers believe that they may have been telling the truth when they said the debris was from a balloon, even if the wreckage shown was not from the actual balloon that crashed. At the time the US Navy and the CIA were involved in the Moby Dick programme, which sent high-altitude balloons over the Soviet mainland on spying missions. There was good reason to keep this secret. However, the stumbling block to this theory doesn’t fit the description of the size or disposition of the debris field described by Marcell who, as we will recall, stated that ‘It was nothing that hit the ground, or exploded on the ground. Its something that must have exploded above the ground, travelling perhaps at a high rate of speed’ … ‘It was quite obvious to me, familiar with air activities, that it was not a weather balloon, nor was it a plain or a missile.’

The Alleged Socorro UFO Hoax. [24th April 1964]


zamora2It has taken 46 years for this revelation to emerge, regarding the Lonnie Zamora sighting in Socorro, New Mexico. Was the landed UFO and its occupants witnessed by Zamora nothing more than an elaborate school prank?

While pursuing a speeding car, police officer Lonnie Zamora heard a loud explosion. He thought that it might have come from a nearby dynamite shack and broke off the pursuit to investigate. He saw a cone of flame travelling over a hill and followed it. It led him to a strange-looking craft and two figures, dressed in “white coveralls” walking around it. He pulled up about 100 ft from the landed, 20 ft “aluminium-white” oval object resting on structured “legs”. As he climbed from his car he bumped his head and his glasses fell off. On approaching the object the figures suddenly jumped out of sight. Shortly after a flame appeared beneath the craft and it roared off over the hill. There was a high-pitched whine and then silence.

On close inspection of the landing site, four “landing impressions” were discovered along with areas of burnt bush, near to where the craft had sat. When asked by an officer, whom he had radioed, what the craft looked like he said, “It looks like a balloon.”

Socorro soon became embroiled in a media circus, including officials from the US Air Force’s Project Blue Book and NICAP. Zamora’s story received not only the attention of the national media, but also the International media. To-date, it is still one of the most celebrated cases in UFO history.


letter-from-lp-to-colgate-6-19-1968In 1968 a letter to Dr. Stirling Colgate -President of New Mexico Tech –  from his friend and multiple Nobel Prize winner Dr. Linus Pauling landed at his door. In the letter he claimed to be researching the Socorro-Zamora landing case and was writing to see if Colgate knew anything about the incident. Colgate’s response leaves little doubt that the incident was the work of tricksters.

In 2009, UFO researcher and author, Anthony Bragalia – a regular contributor to the UFO Iconoclast(s) – contacted Dr. Colgate, a world-famous astrophysicist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to see what his current thoughts were on the Socorro incident and to see if he could shed any further light on the incident. In his email to the then 84-year-old Colgate he attached the 1968 Pauling letter containing the handwritten notes Colgate had written at the time.

It took several days before Colgate replied to the author’s communiqué. His answers to the questions posed were sparing and cryptic. To the first question, ‘Do you still know this to be a hoax?’ he answered, ‘Yes’.

The second question asked if he could expand on what he wrote to Pauling about the event. He replied, ‘I will ask a friend, but he and other students did not want their cover blown’.

Thirdly, when asked how the hoaxers did it, Colgate simply replied, ‘Will ask’.

To the query, ‘Have you ever publicly commented on this?’ he replied, ‘Of course not’.

Colgate indicated to Bragalia that he would make further enquiries into the event, but as yet he has not received any communication from him, leaving him to speculate as to the reason why.


New Mexico Tech

From the mid 1970s to the early 90s Dr. Frank T Etcorn was a Psychology Professor at New Mexico Tech. He had an interest in the Socorro UFO event some ten years before his tenure at the College. Anthony Bragalia became aware of his interest and contacted him to see if he had discovered anything about the sighting or had gleaned any new information about what had really happened. Etcorn related to him that in the mid 1980s a young student of his had examined the case as a project. She had contacted alumni who were at Tech during 1964. She claimed she had found one of the students who had been involved in the hoax. Though he did not give details concerning the hoax and refused to have his name mentioned, he nevertheless confirmed that it was a hoax. Interestingly, she also discovered through records that on the day of the sighting a rear projection device had been stolen from the campus.

Etcorn and Bragalia went on to speculate as to how the student ‘Techies’ may have pulled off the stunt. Their ideas were not beyond the abilities of the ‘smart Techies’ to create. They included:

  • A large helium balloon resting on the desert floor with landing struts attached, to be released on cue.
  • The use of explosives, pyrotechnics, model rockets, thrown flares or a flame device to simulate the ‘roaring’ or ‘whining’.
  • Small students dressed in white lab coats acting as ‘aliens’.
  • The ‘landing depressions’ were probably dug out by hand.
  • The creosote bushes were torched deliberately.
  • Surrounding soil and rock area ‘salted’ with silicon or trinitrite from the school’s geology lab.
  • Zamora was probably lured to the site by another student, whose car he had been chasing.


Collis was a freshman at New Mexico Tech. In 1965, a year after the Zamora sighting, he and some friends intended to carry out a ‘paranormal’ prank and shared his idea with a trusted Professor. Tellingly, the Professor told him that the Tech had a long history of pranking  and that one of them was especially notable. He then confided to Collis that the Zamora sighting was a hoax, done by Techie students. Collis, who is a pyrotechnics expert, said that it had always surprised him that they didn’t seem to realise just how ‘terrestrial’ the Zamora UFO seemed to be in the first place. The name of his Professor still remains a mystery.


In this instance it would appear to be revenge. The Socorro police didn’t have a very good relationship with the students back then. Zamora in particular had a reputation for harassing the Techie students for no apparent good reason, ergo their motive for getting back at him.


Whilst this author does not discount the possibility of a hoax being committed, there are a few disturbing questions that require answers, namely:

  • Zamora’s glasses: We are told the officer’s glasses fell off as he climbed from the car. Yet strangely there is no mention of them being put back on immediately. Could it be we are being subtly led into believing that this is why Zamora did not see the ’UFO’ for what it really was? Furthermore, an article, written by Patrick Huygue in the Anomalist, No 8, Spring 200, reveals that Zamora lost his glasses when he ran from the UFO as it took off , and not as he got out of the car to take a look at the craft. This explanation seems more credible than the former.
  • Colgate’s silence: Why did Colgate really cease communications with Bragalia?
  • Project student and discovered hoaxer: What is the name of the female student who examined the case in the 1980s and that of the self-confessed hoaxer she had uncovered?  Surely the hoaxer has nothing to fear by coming forward after all these years.
  • The ‘trusted Professor’: had apparently been at the College for many years, so why does his identity still remain a mystery?
  • The balloon: Zamora claimed that when the UFO took off it travelled very fast over him. This does not sit well with the flight capabilities of a balloon, unless there was a very strong wind blowing that day.
  • The mysterious figures: Bragalia would have us believe that the two humanoid figures seen next to the craft/balloon and wearing ‘white coveralls’ jumped out of sight when Zamora approached them – presumably behind the so-called balloon. However, when the object took off they were nowhere to be seen. Having looked at images of the landing site taken at the time, I could see no possible place where they could have concealed  themselves.
  • The young student who, in the mid 1980s, allegedly discovered the identity of one of the hoaxers also claimed she had discovered, through campus records that a rear projection device had been stolen from the campus. If, as Bragalia and Etcorn speculated, a large helium balloon, explosives, pyrotechnics and model rockets were used in the elaborate hoax, then why weren’t they also recorded as stolen in the campus records?

For this author the case still remains open. There are far too many unanswered questions to arrive at a firm conclusion. I therefore remain open-minded on it until such time as conclusive evidence is produced, one way or the other.

© David Calvert 2011

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David Calvert

It can be truly said that nature abhors a vacuum. Our world teems with life of every description, ranging from the mundane to the downright outlandish. It would appear that every niche of our planet is populated with life, in one form or another. Even the most hostile and extreme environments are hosts to microbial life forms know as extremophiles.



One such species is the hyperthermophiles. They can be found thriving in temperatures exceeding 80° C, whilst at the other end of the spectrum can be found the psychrophile that exists at 15° C or lower. Then there are the toxitolerants that can exist in pools of benzene and on nuclear waste. Some, like the anaerobes, can even survive in the absence of oxygen, and the list goes on. It would appear that the blue planet we call Earth is a veritable zoo on which multitudinous life forms have taken hold. But what of exobiological life forms? Does our universe teem with life as some scientists have theorised? Moreover, have some of those entities evolved into sentient creatures like man?

Panspermia  Hypothesis.

Assuming that life exists throughout the universe begs the question as to how these cometplanets were seeded. We know that extremophile bacteria can survive even the harshest of environments, even that of outer space. The theory suggests that the transport system for these possibly dormant bacteria may well be meteoroids, asteroids, and even comets. Having been trapped in these bodies they are carried through the universe until colliding with planets etc. If the conditions on the planet are ideal the bacteria are activated and the evolutionary process begins.

Since  the discovery of Martian meteorites on Earth we now know for certain that interplanetary transfer of material takes place and, following in the wake of new scientific discoveries, the Panspermia Theory is now considered a credible hypothesis by the scientific community who had once labelled it ‘ridiculous’.

Through the evolutionary process these bacteria slowly evolve into various species, over a period of aeons. Each assumes a particular niche on its home world. Eventually, one of those species reaches a point where it becomes the dominant life form. As on Earth, intelligence arises and they go through their equivalent of the Stone Age, Bronze Age etc until they reach a level of technological sophistication that allows them to travel beyond the confines of their world.

But what might these creatures look like? We humans are the product of our environment. Like us they would be shaped according to gravitational effects, solar influences, and atmospheric conditions etc. It is not unreasonable to think that if they had a 20,000 year evolutionary head start on humanity, and survived self-annihilation, they might eventually travel beyond the confines of their solar system and out into interstellar space. SETI scientist Frank Drake formulated an equation as to how much intelligence there may be in the universe. He came up with a disturbingly high number.

For the sake of argument let’s assume there are one thousand worlds in our galaxy alone that have achieved this level of sophistication, each with a substantial head start on us as regards interstellar flight at faster than light speeds. Lets further assume that only a handful of extraterrestrial species then stumble upon our world and decide to investigate. They study our social structures, our technological achievements, our religions, fauna and flora, among other things. Inevitably, during this process, humankind becomes aware of their presence. Some encounters appear so bizarre and outlandish that their stories are summarily dismissed as mental aberrations, hoaxes or just downright lies. Unquestionably, a fair amount of encounters fall under such categories. However, a small percentage of these are not so easily dismissed.



Grey_Alien1The most commonly reported alien is the infamous ‘Grey’, so-called because of its skin colouration. These are said to be small in stature and devoid of external human organs. Most notable are their large, opaque eyes, bulbous heads, and lack of genitalia. From the foregoing features we can extrapolate, to a minor extent, what their home world might look like.

 The large eyes, like those of an owl, would seem to indicate that it has a low light environment, which could also account for their grey skin. The slender build is indicative of a low gravity world, possibly smaller than that of the Earth. Some ufologists have theorised that these creatures may not be the dominant species of their world, but rather clones created by the dominant species – as evidenced by their lack of sexual organs. These entities and their creators are said to come from the Pleiades star system, such as the Nordic aliens.

The Betty and Barney Hill abduction, on the night of 19 September 1961, is believed to be the first recorded description of the ‘Greys‘. However, this is not strictly true. They first appeared in an article, ’Man of the Year Million’ (1893), by renowned science-fiction writer H G Wells, predating the Hill’s encounter by some 68 years. Remarkably similar entities also appear in his novels ‘First Men in the Moon’ (1901), and ‘The War of the Worlds’ (1898). Might this imply a cultural, rather than cosmological, link for the ubiquitous Greys?


nordic femaleOne of the earliest reports of a Nordic alien came from that of the now largely discredited George Adamski on 20 November 1952. The event was said to have taken place in the Mojave Desert, Arizona, USA. The being told Adamski his name was ‘Orthon’, and that he came from the planet Venus. If there ever was such an entity, he certainly didn’t originate from Venus. The surface temperature of Venus is high enough to melt lead and its atmospheric pressure is 94.5 times higher than Earth’s. Without a heavily pressurised suit Orthon would have exploded the moment he set foot on Earth. His physiology, and the fact he was not wearing any kind of breathing apparatus, would indicate that he would have come from a world very similar to that of our own, with atmospheric gases roughly consisting of 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, and traces of hydrogen, helium and other “noble” gases. It could well be that Orthon lied in order to hide the true origins of his species which some ufologists believe to be in the Pleiades star cluster.


Billy Meier, a Swiss citizen, claimed he first made contact with Nordic aliens in 1942 at the age of five, but it wasn’t until 1975 that his first ‘official’ contact with them took place. From these contacts he learned that the Nordics were from the star system ‘Plejares’, which supposedly lies beyond the Pleiades, some 420 light years from Earth in the constellation of Taurus. They further informed him that their home planet was called ‘Erra‘ – just one of ten planets that circle their sun.

Physical Characteristics

 The term “Nordic” is applied to this species because of their Scandinavian appearance. They are incredibly human-like, with light blond or white hair and pale white skin. They are said to possess remarkable pale blue eyes but, as in the human species, there are differences in their colouration and shape. They are sometimes reported as having pink, red, yellow, green or violet eyes. In some cases they were reported as having eyes reminiscent of the Greys’ – large and slanted. Eye colour is a polygenic phenotypic character. It is determined by the amount and type of pigments in the iris. Red and violet eyes occur in people with severe forms of albinism, owing to the extremely low quantities of melanin, allowing the blood vessels to show through. True violet-coloured eyes only occur due to albinism. Coupled with the pale white skin and white hair, this would suggest that these alleged entities might suffer from a form of albinism.

Although extremely human-like in appearance, there are said to be subtle biological differences between Nordics and humans, the most paradoxical of them being their skin pigmentation.

Their world is supposed to be hot and dry so one might expect from an evolutionary standpoint that the skin tone should be much darker to protect them from folate depletion created by exposure to strong sunlight. Any gene variations that result in lighter skin wouldn’t survive under such conditions. If their colouration is due to some form of albinism, then it is one that appears to have affected a large proportion of their species.

Further biological differences are said to include: Larger lung capacity (due to lower oxygen levels on their home world), copper-based blood to carry oxygen more efficiently, longer craniums, skin allows moisture to be drawn from the air, the heart is situated in the area where the human liver is and beats at around 242 beats per minute, average blood pressure is 80 systolic and 40 diastolic, extremely dilated blood vessels, blood cells are biconvex, they do not possess a pineal gland, their method of communication takes the form of telepathy, and their average life span is said to be 700 years.


tailess reptoidThe earliest modern reference to reptoids comes from a Los Angeles news story from January 29, 1934, though the credibility of their discoverer, geophysical mining engineer G Warren Shufelt leaves a lot to be desired. Since their emergence in 1934 reptoids have now found prominence through the controversial works of David Icke et al.

Assuming that these creatures are real, where might they have come from? Let’s take a close look at their physiology.

Physical Characteristics

The tailless reptoid is anywhere from 5 – 12 ft in height and has a muscular, lean and scaled body. There is some differentiation in scale colouration. They have long arms, ending in hands with three long fingers with opposable thumbs. Each foot has three toes and a recessed fourth one towards the back of the ankle. Each toe contains a short, blunted, claw. That they have not teats or navel would suggest they are oviparous reptiles, and do not give birth to live young. It is claimed they speak a language called “Eshu” and can also speak many other languages.  They also appear to have differentiated types of dentition, including canines. This differentiation is also noticeable in their eyes. Some have large black eyes with vertical slit pupils, whilst others possess white eyes with vertical, flame coloured, slit pupils. There is a minor tapering to the head, with two bony ridges continuing from the brow towards the back of the head. The nose is small and flattened, consisting of two small nasal cavities that slant upwards in a V formation. There are holes on either side of the head. Unlike humans their ears have no fleshy folds connected to them. The male reptoids’ genitalia consist of a penis hidden within a vertical slit at the base of the torso. In contrast to humans, however, they don’t appear to have a soft-sacked scrotum – only a rigid muscular protuberance from the base of the penis to the underside of the torso.


A pattern seems to be emerging regarding alien encounters, in that the greater majority of these extraterrestrial biological entities (EBEs) have no apparent need for any kind of breathing apparatus when visiting our world. This would suggest that their home worlds must have remarkably similar gaseous atmospheres to that of Earth.

It has been claimed that the reptoids live in the bowels of the earth which would imply that they have evolved into a warm-blooded species or that thermoregulatory adaptations within their bodies allow them to maintain their core temperatures. Whatever the case, it would appear, yet again, that their home world might well be remarkably similar to that of Earth.

The reptoid species are divided into four types.

 Reptilian-Humanoids (as above and the most commonly reported).

The Winged Draco Reptoids

The Draco Prime Reptoids

The Reptilian – Grey Crossbreeds.


ChupacabraOriginally, this creature was known as El Vampiro de Moca as some of the first killings were reported in the small town of Moca, in the Dominican Republic, 1992. Then, some three years later, accounts of it surfaced in Puerto Rica, then subsequently in Central and North American regions of Mexico and the United States. They have also been witnessed in Maine and as far south as Chile. The island of Puerto Rica became a major region for UFO sightings, so it wasn’t long before the two phenomena were linked.

 The given name for this entity is derived from the Spanish words chupar “to suck” and cabra “goat”, due to the entity’s reported predilection for attacking and drinking the blood of livestock, particularly goats.

They are commonly described as reptile-like beings, with an approximate height of three to four feet. Their stance is said to be like that of a kangaroo, with a hopping, bipedal motion. There appears to be two varieties of this entity. One is said to have a panther-like face, with large fangs and forked tongue. When it becomes alarmed it is reported to give off a sulphuric stench and hisses and/or screeches.

One story of a Chupacabra surfaced on January 20th 1996 in Varghina, Brazil. It was reported that the entity, having been captured by the military, gave off a “buzzing” sound. There are also reports of them leaving a slimy residue on their victims’ bodies. This particular case has now been proven a hoax.

Clearly, these supposed EBEs are predatory by nature and kill their prey by draining them of blood through their necks or chests, a trait know as hematophagy and which is found in three bat species on Earth. Listed among some of the chupacabra’s prey are, goats, horses, dogs, mice, sheep, and cattle. Considering their diminutive stature, begs the question as to how they are capable of bringing down larger prey, such as cattle and horses. Perhaps, like the vampire bat, they anaesthetise their victims before injecting their saliva into the animals’ bloodstreams. Anticoagulants then inhibit blood clotting and compounds prevent the constriction of blood vessels near the wound. Unlike vampire bats, however, these creatures appear to have a voracious appetite, draining their victims of every last drop of blood to the point of death. Another commonality is that they also seem to be nocturnal predators.

To this author’s knowledge these entities have never been seen on board or in close proximity to UFOs and have never been described as wearing clothing or in possession of any form of technology whatsoever, signifying that they are not an advanced species. Some ufologists have conjectured that they may have been brought here by an intelligent extraterrestrial life form and have escaped their captivity or been released into our environment by them. Others still, that they are the product of a genetic engineering experiment by the military. Whatever the truth of their origins may be you can be certain that we have not heard the last of these elusive creatures.

We look at our own planet and marvel at its complexity, variety and abundance of life found thereon. With each new discovery human knowledge grows exponentially. The current total of known species on our world amounts to a staggering 7,227,130. This number does not include animals such as sheep, goats, camels or single-celled organisms such as bacteria. Even now we are discovering hitherto unknown life forms and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. It has been estimated that there are approximately 5,523,300 species yet to be discovered. With each new finding we become increasingly enriched by the scientific advancements that develop from the study of such discoveries.

Consider the advancements to medicine from the study of plants, of how our understanding of the atom changed our world forever, of how alchemy evolved into the science of chemistry, and astrology into astronomy. Without these, and other advancements, our species would still be in the dark ages. By adhering to outmoded ideas we would have run the risk of becoming an obsolescent species. Inevitably, old paradigms collapse under the pressure of our ever-increasing knowledge. Hopefully, one of the last bastions to fall will be the idea that we are alone in the universe.

© David Calvert 2011

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Analysis of  Alien Abduction Scenarios.
 David Calvert.

A typical account of alien abduction sometimes begins with the abductees experiencing restlessness, anxiety, and a premonition that something strange is about to happen.

abduction from vehicleIn vehicular abduction cases, the individual/s may also experience a subtle urge or prompting to be at a certain location at a certain time. The first indication of an imminent abduction often comes with their sighting of a UFO. In British cases it is commonly the black triangular or traditional silver reflective ‘flying saucer’ type. alien abductionThrough the use of various transportation techniques they are then removed from their terrestrial environment on to the waiting UFO by non-human entities. At this juncture subjects may experience a loss of memory. Once aboard they are invariably subjected to various physical tests and procedures, the main thrust of which is in the genetic experimentation area. The extraction of sperm and ovum are commonly reported, (although over the last few years there has been a noticeable decrease in these procedures), as are the removal or insertion of implants. Throughout the entire procedure the abductee/s experience a paralysis, assumed by many to be induced for the benefit of both parties. One of the beings – commonly reported as appearing taller and more caring than the others -is often referred to as a leader or liaison.

When the examination is completed they may be given a tour of the ship or attend a conference, in which they are shown cataclysmic images of the Earth’s destruction and a warning against certain human activities. Others experience being taken on an otherworldly journey and are shown a barren, devastated landscape or view a bright, lush landscape that seems enclosed or underground. The departure for many is sudden, again involving a momentary lapse of memory for some.

Some experience immediate or short-term symptoms in the aftermath of their encounters. These range from irritation of the eyes, to puncture wounds, dehydration and headaches, whilst others suffer intermediate and long-term after effects involving vague anxieties, sleep disturbances and, more frighteningly, additional abductions.Only a small minority of abductees see their encounters as being spiritual.

 From the above scenario it becomes abundantly clear that while some cases share certain commonalities, all do not. In this sense they are atypical. A closer inspection of several abduction cases will serve to identify some of these commonalities and differences.


  [1940s – 1990s]

antonio villas boas

One of the earliest abduction cases reported was that of 23-year-old Brazilian rancher, Antonio Villas Boas. On October 14, 1957, both he and his brother witnessed a strange light that seemed to follow them around as they ploughed a field late that evening. Unsettled by the strange light, they gave up their work and went home.

         The following night the light returned. This time, Antonio was alone. The light drew closer to him and hovered. He uncoupled the tractor’s ploughing gear to head for home but found the tractor would not start. Without warning the light swooped to the ground a few yards from him and two small entities, wearing helmeted ‘space suits’ and breathing apparatus, emerged. They seized him and frog marched him into the UFO. Once aboard, they stripped him and smeared his body with a clear, odourless liquid. They then took blood samples from his chin. A quite remarkable event then took place.

boasA naked female entity entered the room. She was approximately 4 ft. 6 inches tall, had thin blonde hair, slanted eyes, high cheekbones and thin lips. Her seduction of Villas Boas resulted in their having sexual intercourse twice, before a robotic alien intervened. When she was called away, she pointed to her stomach and then the sky. Although he enjoyed the experience, he was somewhat repelled by the guttural barking sounds she made during the coupling. When his clothes were returned, he dressed and was taken around the ship and allowed to see what appeared to be a control room. He was later returned back to the farm.

Herbert Schirmer.

In the early hours of December 3, 1967, at the junction of Highway 3 and 63 near Ashland, Nebraska, USA, patrolman Herbert Schirmer saw a football-shaped UFO on the ground. It was displaying red lights and was supported on tripod landing gear.

Following the sighting, his log showed 20 minutes of missing time he could not account for. At home a red weal appeared on his neck and he suffered from a headache and a buzzing sound in his ears that kept him awake. According to his testimony under hypnosis, he described encountering 4 ft. tall entities that emerged from the UFO and surrounded his patrol car. He tried to pull out his revolver, but was prevented from doing so by telepathically conveyed command. One of the aliens held a device that covered the car with a green light or gas. Another entity touched his neck, causing him pain. After being questioned by them he was taken aboard the UFO, which he was told worked by ‘reversible electromagnetism’. When he asked his captors if they were responsible for kidnapping people he was told that they had a programme known as ‘breeding analysis’ and that some humans were used in these experiments. This is probably the first overt reference in an abduction case to an alien genetic programme.

According to his testimony the aliens wore close-fitting, hooded, silver-grey uniforms with boots and gloves. The visible portions of their facial skin was grey-white, the nose flat, and the mouth a mere slit. They had slanted eyes with strange pupils that opened and closed like a camera lens.

Linda Cortile.


At the age of 41, Italian-American, Linda Cortile, a New York housewife, claimed that at 3am on November 30, 1989, she was approached by a ‘small grey-skinned alien’ while she lay in bed. She recalled her body becoming paralysed in the creature’s presence, although her recollection of what happened next was vague. She also remembered lying on a table having her back examined.

Under hypnosis, she recalled five entities taking her from her bed, describing them as being short, white and dark, with very intense black eyes that shone. She claimed they lifted her up and carried her to the living room window, where there was a very bright blue-white light outside. The creatures then floated her through the locked twelfthfloor window and levitated her into the belly of a waiting UFO, where there began the examination of her back, and right nostril. Before leaving the examining table she was questioned about her family.

What makes this abduction experience so different from others is the fact that an international diplomat allegedly witnessed it and two US government ‘agents’, who saw both her and her abductors float from the twelfth-floor apartment in a foetal position, bathed in a blue light. They then opened into a standing position, before disappearing into the UFO.

A greater revelation was yet to follow when in 1991 the two ‘agents’ suddenly recalled being on a beach with Cortile, seconds after she was abducted. In subsequent hypnotic regressions Cortile revealed that the aliens were using her to explain to the leading politician that humanity was damaging the environment and that they were also collecting sand samples for analysis.

Bud Hopkins, the case investigator, received a call from Cortile who claimed that around October 20, 1991, she awoke to find her face, bedclothes and pillow covered in blood. Fortunately, one week earlier an X-ray was taken of Cortile’s head that revealed a tiny, cylindrical, radiopaque object lodged up her nose. A second X-ray was taken sometime after her nosebleed and revealed nothing untoward. This led Hopkins to surmise that the aliens had removed it – hence the bloodstains on her bed.

Betty Andreasson Luca.

betty andreasson luca

This case is possibly one of the most important in the annals of the abduction phenomenon, because her experience began in 1944, when she was seven, and have continued ever since. Some of the abductions took place while she was alone, others included members of her family, including her husband and daughter. It is also interesting to note that Betty and Bob Luca’s abduction experiences have taken place in two different states of being. The first is a normal straightforward abduction. The second in an altered state i.e. Out of Body.

At around 7 p.m., on the night of January 25, 1967, Betty’s family home in Ashburnham, Massachusetts, was plunged into darkness and a diffuse pink light shone in from the kitchen window. Betty was already in a state of some anxiety, because her husband was seriously ill in hospital following a car accident.

When her father looked outside he saw small creatures that looked like ‘Halloween freaks’. When one of them turned to look at him, he felt ‘kind of queer’ and blacked out. When the lights came back on Betty saw her seven children and parents were motionless, as if in a trance. She watched, rooted in terror, as four entities, wreathed in a haze, entered through the locked back door. They were approximately 1.3 metres tall, were all dressed in skin-tight blue uniforms and had bulbous heads with almond-shaped eyes. Around 3 hours and forty minutes later, when the family finally ‘awoke’ from their torpor, only Betty and her father had the dimmest recollection of what had happened.

At the age of forty – some ten years later – she underwent a session of hypnotic regression and the full story of her encounter and, it emerged, her abduction was revealed. An astonishing story began to unfold in 1977 when Betty underwent her 14 sessions of hypnotic regression with Henry J. Edelson, and expert in the field. According to her account, and whilst her family were in a trance-like state, the tallest alien asked Betty to accompany them. She was also told they had come to help the human race, because they were in danger of destroying themselves. Then she was floated outside, where an odd looking oval craft with a raised central console was waiting.

Once aboard they began their examination of her and noticed that some of her body parts were missing; an observation she presumed referred to a hysterectomy she had undergone. A curious machine, like a cross between a camera and an eye, then began to examine her and a needle was inserted into her navel. She became acutely distressed. The tall alien apparently laid his hand upon her forehead and the pain was relieved. A device was then used to remove a tiny spiked ball from her nostril. It later emerged under hypnosis that Betty had, in fact, been abducted on several previous occasions and that the object was some kind of implant.

Following her examination she was removed to a ‘cylindrical room’ where she was put into one of eight seats resembling armchairs. Tubes were inserted into her mouth and nostrils and a translucent canopy was lowered over her. A grey liquid then flooded the capsule and she felt a spoonful of thick, sweet liquid being injected into her mouth, which had a tranquilising effect on her. She then experienced a series of pleasant vibrations and a temporary heaviness, as if the vessel was accelerating.  

When she emerged from the capsule a short while later, two hooded humanoids took control of her and floated her along a black track through a series of dark interconnecting tunnels. They eventually came to a mirrored wall and Betty, thinking they were about to collide with it, braced herself for the impact. Incredibly, however, there was no collision. When she opened her eyes she discovered the ambient air was ‘vibrating red’, as if she was being bathed in infrared radiation. Her journey took her passed strange looking buildings, across which clambered thin, ape-like creatures with suckers for fingers and two large eyes atop stalks rather than heads.

Soon after, she was taken into a place that she described as beautiful and green, like Earth. In the distance she could see cities with mighty domes. As bizarre as her encounters had thus far been, they were nothing in comparison to what next befell her.

Directly ahead a large object came into view, which was silhouetted against a bright phoenixlight. As it drew closer she realised it was a 4.5 meter tall statue of an eagle, which suddenly burst into flames. From the ashes arose not a fledgling phoenix but a thick, grey worm that communicated telepathically with her, saying, “You have seen and you have heard. Do you understand?” She replied that she could make no sense of it all. Again the voice spoke in her head; “I have chosen you … I have chosen you to show the world.”  

Another witness emerged in the early investigative stages of the affair. It was Betty’s daughter, Becky, who claimed that when the aliens arrived at their home she had briefly managed to shake off her trance and had glimpsed the visitors. She described them as being hairless, with pear-shaped heads, almond eyes, orifices rather than external nose and ears, and a slit-like ‘mouth’ typical of the Grey. Other features however did not fit this stereotype; the creature’s skin was clay-like, not scaly and instead of four long fingers they had three thick ones that were attached to club-like hands. They differed from Greys in other respects too. Betty’s physical examination, for example, was conducted without the disregard for pain, traditionally shown by Greys.

Listed below are just a few examples of the amazing account recalled by Betty and Bob Luca.


Five years after her first encounter, Betty experiences meeting an alien in some woods. The ball of light she experienced in 1944 was also present in the encounter.


Here, she was abducted from a field and taken to an underground area, where her eye was examined and removed. Eleven years later, 1961, she was drawn to some woods where she met an alien with a message.


See above detailed account.


During this abduction Betty witnesses alien technology and the birth of a foetus.Four years later an alien warns her of the impending death of two of her sons.


Both Bob and Betty are abducted from their car via an out-of-body experience, in which Betty is turned into a being of light and Bob is given information on life and death.


Further out-of-body and physical abductions take place. In the latter state is taken by a UFO to a place described as the ‘crystal forest’. From this place she is taken to a huge UFO above the Earth. Aboard this craft she witnesses, among other things, an operation to replace a Grey’s eyes. There are also Nordic-type aliens aboard the craft for whom, it is explained, the Greys work.

During a further OBE abduction she sees her daughter aboard the alien craft. She is apparently under instruction. Bob is abducted and is put on a table. A device is fitted to his head and he sees symbols in his mind.


Bob sees an alien Grey in their house.

Carlos Manuel Mercado.

In his home in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico, Carlos Manuel Mercado claimed to have been visited by three aliens he described as being like the traditional ‘Greys’, except they had bumps on their facial skin. They wore one piece, tightly fitting, sandy coloured fitting suits and communicated with him via telepathy. The year was 1988.

He was abducted from his home onto a domed, disk-shaped craft in which he saw more smaller beings and a taller entity, approximately 5 ft. 9 inches tall. This entity was dressed in a white robe and looked a little more human than the others. After he assured Carlos that he would come to no harm, the craft took off and headed toward Sierra Bermeja, a few miles distant. As he watched through the portholes he saw they were approaching the El Cayul Mountain. He then saw a brilliant light when something opened up and the craft went inside through a kind of tunnel and into a large cavern that was brightly lit and appeared to be constructed of aluminium.

After disembarking from the UFO, Carlos was told by the tall alien that he was going to show them how advanced they were. He saw a barrack-like structure, hundreds of aliens assembling machines, and many crafts of varying design. “As you can see”, the tall entity told him, “We have a base here for the maintenance of our crafts’ systems. We have been here for a long time and don’t intend to leave.” Carlos was also told that they meant no harm to Earth people and that they were not here as conquerors. They merely wanted to reach out to establish a direct relationship that would be beneficial to both parties.

 Carlos could not understand why he had been chosen, as he was a simple man, whom no one would believe. The tall alien replied, “People will hear you, as well as many others we are contacting and bringing here to show them the same. When (educated) people hear what simple people – as you call yourself – are saying they will know that you are telling the truth.” He was then returned home.

Author, Timothy Good also relates a story of someone taken to the alien facility. In this instance he was a high-ranking military officer. Interestingly, everything the officer said corroborated the details given by Mercado.

Common Themes and Differences of Purported ET Abductions.

 Alien Types:

In seeking to categorize the phenomenon, Thomas Bullard’s classification scheme (1995) shows a divergence in the descriptions offered by abductees of their non-human captors, who range from short grey (standard) humanoids to apes, robots, Nordic-types, and other assorted oddities. These we find in abundance in the previously cited cases. Some, as in the Luca case, are exotic in the extreme and do not even appear in Bullard’s classification.

Even the traditional Greys appear to display disparate features. Some are reported as having intense, black eyes that shine. Others posses almond-shaped eyes (Luca), whilst others have slanted eyes with odd pupils that open and close like a camera lens (Schirmer). Becky Luca, we may recall, also described features that did not fit the Greys’ stereotype; their skin texture and the numbers of hand digits being appreciably different.

In a later abduction her mother, Betty, also reported seeing Nordic – type aliens.

The so-called Greys in the Mercado case were also unusual in that they had bumps on their facial skin. He also reported seeing a taller entity dressed in a white robe. A Nordic type perhaps?


Antonio Villas Boas was unable to offer a detailed description of his captors, because they wore helmeted ‘space suits’ with breathing apparatus, suggesting an inability to breathe our atmosphere. Yet, the naked female he encountered wore no such breathing apparatus. Nor did the Schirmer, Cortile, Luca and Mercado entities, though they did wear similar outfits. Of the five cited cases, only Boas describes a robotic alien.         

Abduction Methodology.

In 1995, 57% of abduction cases reportedly took place from bedrooms, whereas reports of abductions from vehicles were 26%. Whatever the location, the transference methods employed suggest different technological skills and capabilities.  In the case of Betty Andreasson Luca, a beam floated her to the waiting craft. This also happened to Linda Cortile who, like Luca, also experienced the nullification of the nuclear repulsive forces when she was physically passed through a locked window. Villas Boas was physically manhandled into a UFO and it can be reasonably assumed – given Schirmer’s description of an open hatchway – which he too entered in a similar fashion.

The use of such disparate technologies and alternate abduction methodologies can hardly be described as typical; especially the Out of Body (OOB) abductions experienced by Betty Luca.

Bullard’s classification table shows telepathy to be the favoured method of communication, showing little deviation over an eight-year period from 1987 – 95. This is certainly true in the Schirmer, Luca, and Mercado encounters. In the case of Villas Boas, however, who claimed to have had a sexual encounter with an alien female, communication allegedly took place via hand gestures, barks and yelps. 

A further distinction is evidenced in the manner abductees are treated by their non-human abductees. Some report them as being warm and considerate, as in the Mercado and Luca abductions, whereas Boas – who was frog marched into the craft experienced a military-like protocol. They were also cold and, as with Linda Cortile, behaved in a business like way towards him. Schirmer found them to be coercive and controlling and believed them to be insincere and uncaring, one of his captors going so far as to cause physical pain and injury to him.

A common theme that runs through many abduction cases is that of memory loss. The Luca family’s conscious memories of the events were fragmented and made little sense until they underwent regression hypnosis and began to recall in greater detail their abductions. The same appears to be true of Linda Cortile, Herbert Schirmer and Villas Boas. Had they all been given instructions by their captors to forget?

It is worth noting at this juncture that many ufologists distrust hypnotic regression as a tool for eliciting memory because of the highly suggestible state the patient is placed in. What may have been a dream or a temporary mental aberration can become a subjectively real occurrence in the mind of the patient in their altered state. It is of vital importance that the practitioner be fully qualified in this discipline when dealing in cases of supposed abduction so as not to create a ‘false memory’.           

In 1995 it was reported that 68% of abductees undergo a ‘standard’ medical examination which may or may not involve blood being taken; samples of genetic material being removed; a reproductive examination; and the removal or insertion of implants. Given that these procedures do occur, they are by no means a guaranteed feature as the Boas, Schirmer, and Mercado contactee cases demonstrate, although Boas and Schirmer do seem to have been involved in some kind of breeding and ‘breeding analysis’ programmes.

Conversely, Linda Cortile and Betty Luca do undergo medical examinations. In Cortiles case her back and right nostril is examined. This was done manually, as reported by 42% of abductees in 1995. In line with 24% of reported medical examinations done by aliens, Luca is given a reproductive examination and, as with Cortile, a probe is inserted up her nose. Seventeen years previously her eye was also examined and removed.

In 1987 Bullard’s classification table reported that 49% of abductees were examined by an eye-like device, a procedure also experienced by Luca. However, it was in 1989 that Betty witnessed the most unusual medical procedure. It was performed not on herself but on a Grey, who had its eye replaced.

We can only speculate as to why diverse and intrusive medical procedures are being performed. However, it is worth noting that reproductive function and development is of particular interest to these creatures. Why else would they extract sperm and ova or retrieve developing foetal material?

According to Joe Nyman this is the most variable of all abduction stages. Of the above-cited cases only one, Cortile, isn’t given a tour. Boas and Schirmer tour their captors’ ships and witness various technological devices. Similar events were likewise reported by 28% of abductees in 1995. Carlos Manuel Mercado visits an underground alien facility where he sees hundreds of aliens maintaining crafts of various design.

The Betty Andreasson Luca case is, however, the most intriguing of all. Over several alleged abductions she has witnessed alien technology and the birth of a foetus, claims to have gone on two otherworldly journeys in 1967 and 1989; and even alleges abduction in an Out-of-Body state. The latter notwithstanding, the tours in themselves are a relatively common theme. But it is in their content and the messages they purportedly convey that disquieting differentiations are to be found. These might or might not be the result of wholly separate extraterrestrial agendas.

In 1987, 71% of abductees reported experiencing after-effects on a short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term basis. Interestingly, Mercado and Boas did not. Although a medical examination of the latter did show that he had been exposed to radiation, he merely told his story and retreated to his daily life.

Herbert Schirmer showed both short and long-term after-effects, the latter taking the form of severe headaches.

Linda Cortile was suspected as having undergone a further abduction to remove an implant when she awoke one morning to discover dry blood on her face and bedclothes.

Betty Andreasson Luca is experiencing on-going abductions and has developed physical scars, thought by some to be due to cell sampling carried out by her abductors. She continues to regard the abductions as spiritual experiences.

Whether such abductions are real, imagined or are the product of mental aberrations, it is still hotly contested in ufological circles and will continue to be so in the foreseeable future. One thing they are certainly not is typical.


Evans, Hilary & Spencer, John (1989): Phenomenon Futura Publications.
OCN Ufology (2000): Unit 4: Alien Abduction.
The Contactee Era. Brookesmith, Peter (1995):
UFO The Complete Sightings Catalogue: Abductions and Absurdities. BCA.
OCN Ufology (2000): Unit 4: Alien Abduction: The Abduction Phenomenon in the 1960s.
The X Factor, issue 47 (1997): Abduction at Brooklyn Bridge. Marshall Cavendish Ltd.
OCN Ufology (2000): Unit 4: Alien Abduction.
The 1980s: Part 2. OCN Ufology (2000): Unit 4: Alien Abductions. The Andreasson Case.
The X Factor, Macdonald, Andrew, Issue 47 (1998): The Emissaries of God?
Good, Timothy (1998): Alien Base. Century.
Bullard, Thomas (1995): OCN Ufology: Unit 4: Alien Abduction. Characteristics of the Phenomenon.
Butler, Richard D (1997): Abduction Experience [AE 4] Classifications.
OCN Ufology. Unit 4: Alien Abduction.
Brookesmith, Peter (1995): Contact. The Complete Sightings Catalogue.
Nyman, Joe (2000): Stage 4: Reassurance, Positive Feelings, A Sense of Source and Purpose Given.
OCN Ufology. Unit 4 (2000): Alien Abduction.

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A Brief Encounter.

An assessment of case file 05 -1

[Multiple witness sighting.]


During my time as a qualified researcher and investigator of the UFO phenomenon I have amassed several files, the majority of which turned out to have prosaic explanations. On occasions, however, some investigations go beyond the mundane and can generate more questions than there are answers. The following case is one of those. It took place near the town of Stanley, Co. Durham, on July 14th 2005. It is also unique to my other investigations because of the photographic evidence that came with it.

Location: Harelaw Industrial Estate, North Road, Stanley, Co. Durham.

Case Background

At approximately 3.20 a.m. July 14, 2005, 39-year-old Darren Lumley, Maintenance Supervisor at the Schmitz Cargobull UK factory, and Brian McMahon were busy working the nightshift when excited security guard, Tom Fairgreaves entered the workshop saying he had seen a strange light In the sky. The trio went outside to investigate – Darren having the foresight to take with him his FinePix A330 Zoom digital camera, that he had used earlier to photograph newly installed jigs and tools.

The Event

The weather was warm and calm outside and low, broken clouds gently drifted eastward towards the town of Stanley. The men’s eyes were immediately drawn to one cloud in particular. It was pulsating with waves of light, with an orange coloured light beam emanating upward into the night sky from its interior, at a compass bearing of 170° SE, azimuth 70°. Darren estimated the strangely silent cloud to be two miles distant when he began photographing it. When it reached an approximate bearing of 145-150° SE, some ten minutes later, the lights illuminating it suddenly went out. As a keen bird watcher, Darren also noted the birds which occupied a nearby nature pond had become unusually quiet during the cloud’s passage.

They returned to the workshop and downloaded the images onto a laptop. To their dismay, none of them showed the mysterious cloud. Some, however, on further examination, did show a number of ‘orbs’ of various sizes that had not been seen by the naked eye at the time the photographs were taken.

Schmitz UFO 010

Image 23


Investigator’s Observations & Opinions.

Having known Brian and Darren for many years as work colleagues, I am convinced of their sincerity regarding their sighting. None of the trio has sought notoriety or financial gain from their experience; indeed, it was only through another work colleague that it came to my attention. Nor have they espoused any particularly strong beliefs in the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis. In fact Darren, whom I interviewed at length, expressed only the need to know what it was he saw. That the event had unsettled him was unquestionable, his mind being unsettled and beset by all kinds of questions. He was the one most affected by what he had seen.

Initially, the date I was given for the sighting was July 13, but on analysing the images and camera specifications I learnt that the event actually occurred on the 14th, the first image being digitised at 03.18 hrs. The final image was taken at 03.27 hrs, which amounts to a total of 9 mins 19 secs photographic time. This was very close to the estimated time of 10 minutes, they gave me for the sighting.

The date discrepancy is of little concern. Anyone who has worked nightshifts will tell you how easy it is to become confused about times and dates.

Press Office Report

On August 2 I received an eagerly awaited reply from Durham Constabulary’s Press Office, regarding my request of July 29 for any information they might have regarding the sighting. On checking their incidents logs and officer’s reports they were unable to find any corroborative evidence.

 Newcastle International Airport.

A similar request was made to Newcastle Airport for any pilot sightings or anomalous radar returns. To date, I have not received any reply from them.

Royal Meteorological Society.

Having contacted the RMS, to ascertain whether the sighting could possibly have been a meteorological phenomenon, I received a prompt reply that proffered and explanation of something bright travelling across the sky above the cloud, making it diffuse in form. However, their representative also stated that he could not think of anything that would be big enough or bright enough to account for the sighting.

I quickly ruled out ‘Sprites’ as a possible candidate for the phenomenon, even though the physical characteristics and dynamics of them bore a striking resemblance to the phenomenon.

Sprites are massive but weak luminous flashes that appear directly above active thunderstorm systems. When I showed an image of one such sprite to Darren he said, “That’s it. That’s what we saw!” Unfortunately, it could not have been for the following reasons:

images (6)

1. Sprites only occur above active thunderstorms. (There was no thunder. The cloud was silent).

2. Sprites appear to have a duration of only a few milliseconds. (The sighting lasted 10 minutes).

3. Current evidence strongly suggests that Sprites preferentially occur in decaying thunderstorms and are correlated with large, positive cloud-to-ground lightning strokes. (No lightning strokes of any description were reported).

There are many other reasons for precluding the Sprite hypothesis as an explanation for this sighting. Suffice to say, the foregoing more than adequately demonstrates the unsoundness of such an explanation.

Astronomical Phenomena

images (15)

On one image # 23 (above) a bright sphere (not an ‘orb‘) appears at the top of the photograph. Astronomical research has proven conclusively it is not a celestial body, such as a planet or the Moon. The Moon did not climb above the horizon until 13.04 hrs. that day. Nevertheless, I did identify three other light sources as being Mars, Juno, and Aldebarran.

Photographic Evidence

My initial analysis of the photographic evidence has led me to the following conclusions:

1. The cloud does not appear in the images because it was too distant and faint for the camera to pick up. In this instance the flash was used, thus obscuring any fainter light source at distance.

2. Regarding the ‘orbs’, I was struck by the remarkable similarities between one of the orbs  and this Low Energy Density Sphere image taken from a scientific study.


The scientific report shows orbs in various stages of forming, and in some cases show fully formed spheres behind stationary objects such as trees, strongly suggesting that they are not specs of dust or any other particulate matter on the camera lens. Unfortunately, none of the orbs in my investigation appear partially obscured by any object. Thus, the particulate matter hypothesis cannot be ruled out in this instance.

3.  Interestingly, the bright sphere that appears at the top of image # 23 occupies the region in the sky, that approximates the position of the cloud when first seen by the witnesses. Might this be the source of the light phenomenon Malcolm Walker of the RMS proffered in his reply to my enquiry? If this is the light source, which the witnesses estimated was two miles distant, then it must be very big and bright indeed, as Mr. Walker stated it would have to be. (Please note that under higher magnification this sphere is emitting ‘spiked’ rays).

4. Following several on-site photographic experiments, using the original camera, I have been able to determine that the object in image # 23 is not a reflection from some hidden light source, nor does it appear to be lens flare. Though there are several orange security lights present, none can account for the bright white object that appears in the image.

5. One of the orbs, under 400% magnification, appears to show a human face. This ‘face’ however has a prosaic explanation. The human eye is designed to detect patterns, and the brain is designed to make sense of those patterns. Without a doubt, when one studies this orb several faces emerge, leading me to conclude that the so-called face is merely an artefact of the brain’s need to make sense of the patterns within the image.

Site Visits

On July 25 I conducted a site visit to take azimuth readings and compass bearings. It was during this procedure that I discovered a curious magnetic anomaly. At one particular spot the compass needle suddenly jumped 60° northeast. As I continued a few paces south toward the perimeter fence, the needle swung abruptly 290° northwest. The fluctuations occurred repeatedly as I crossed the zone. I was later able to verify that there are no hidden or buried power lines in the immediate locale, thereby discounting them as a possible source for the magnetic anomaly.


On August 18 I conducted further research, having in mind the possibility that magnetic deposits were the causal factor of the fluctuations in the magnetic field. It turned out not to be the case, and since my initial visits an appreciable decrease had occurred, thereby invalidating any geophysical hypothesis.

During this same visit I also conducted several photographic experiments with the original camera. Several orbs appeared on the images, despite having checked the lens for faults and cleaning it of any dust particles. It would appear the orbs, whatever they may represent, are an entirely independent phenomenon.

Evidence-Based Conclusions

So what did the witnesses see in the early hours of July 14 2005? Was it a rare meteorological phenomenon? If so, then it is one that is so rare as to never have been recorded since meteorological records began. Though it bears some physical similarities to the Sprite phenomenon, several major parameter changes would need to be taken into account before it could be considered as a candidate. The absence of sound or cloud-to-ground lightning strikes are overwhelming factors in mitigating such an interpretation.

Given the time of the sighting, it is hardly surprising there are few witnesses to it. However, there is some anecdotal evidence to suggest an independent sighting of the event in the form of a lady who phoned her local radio station to say that she had seen a “beam of light” in the sky at the time.

An astronomical interpretation is completely ruled out. The only reasonable candidate for the bright sphere seen in image # 23 is the Moon, but the time and position are incorrect for such an explanation. No other celestial body in size, shape, and magnitude, comes remotely close to it.

aircaft landing lightsCould it have been an aircraft? Extremely unlikely. The only powerful lights on an airliner are its forward facing landing beams. In this instance it would also have to have been travelling towards the witnesses, and would ultimately have emerged from the cloud into clear view. As it was a calm morning they would also have heard its engines.

Hot air balloons can also generate a UFO report. Nonetheless, I have also rejected this as a possible candidate for the following reasons:

• The burners on a hot air balloon are used to create lift, but they are used in short images (16)bursts and certainly not over a sustained period of minutes. Had the pilot been reckless enough to sustain the burn, and possibly run out of fuel for a controlled landing, the balloon would have quickly risen above the cloud and become visible. Moreover, the noise made by the burner would have been audible.  More importantly, what sane pilot would travel within a cloud, obscuring his view of the surrounding terrain and other aircraft?

• The cloud’s bright pulsing light and the vertical orange beam make the balloon theory even less likely. The balloons envelope would naturally diffuse much of the light from the burner, and the cloud even further still. Furthermore, there would be no exiting orange vertical beam at its apex. For this to occur the balloon would have to have had a large opening at its top, seriously jeopardising its lift capabilities.

lazer on cloudA laser display is certainly a tantalising feasibility. A dark cloud would surely be a good screen medium on which to shine a laser. But what would be the point of such an expensive display at such an early hour, when there would be virtually no one around to see it? Surely, on duty police officers would have seen it. And why wasn’t the ground-to-cloud laser beam visible? Wouldn’t such a laser show have been advertised in the local media? To date, I have found no evidence of this.

What remains is a very large and bright object, of undetermined nature and origin, travelling within the cloud. What that object may have been remains a mystery and a matter for conjecture. Based on the evidence at hand, I am left with little recourse but to classify the phenomenon as an (Unidentified Flying Object/Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon.

Hynek Classification System Assessment

In assessing this case I have awarded it the following classifications.

Nocturnal Lights [NL]  Fluctuating light phenomenon witnessed.

Close Encounter 2 [CE II]  The birds’ silence during the clouds passage suggests some kind of physical reaction to its proximity  Also, during the site visit, a  magnetic anomaly was evidenced, for which there was no explanation. .

Vallee Classification System Assessment
(AN ratings are used to classify anomalous behaviour)

AN 2  A magnetic anomaly which continued several days after the event.

(FB ratings are used to describe the fly-by of an anomalous craft or object)

FB 2  Straightforward sighting of a UAP (Unidentified Aerial Phenomenon) on a continuous trajectory; plus resultant magnetic anomaly.

SVP Rating
(The SVP rating is an important rating of credibility)

Awarded SVP Rating = 433.

The above score was awarded for the following reasons:

Source reliability score = 4. All accounts and testimonies are from first-hand witnesses, interviewed by a source of proven reliability.

Site visit score = 3. Site was visited by a reliable investigator with some experience.

Possible explanation rating = 3. Natural explanation for this sighting requires major alteration of several parameters.

David Calvert 20/10/05

© David Calvert 2011

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Triangular Formation of Lights: A Personal Sighting.

When Plausible Explanations are Found Wanting.

[Note: this personal sighting report was first published in UFO Magazine under the title above on April 2002, issue, p.48-49]

A Night To Remember

“It was around 11.10 pm on a Wednesday evening. I had just emerged from a workmate’s car after finishing the late shift.

Bidding  good night to another colleague who lives on a nearby estate, I was walking to my house in White-Le-Head Gardens, Tantobie, in the northeast of England, when I saw three faint blue and diffused stationary lights in a triangular formation about 15-20° above the eastern horizon.

They were approximately half a mile apart from each other, at 500-1000ft altitude, and behind thin cloud covering. I did not enter the house immediately but went directly to the back garden, away from the glare of the street lights so I could see them more clearly.

penshaw ufos

My wife was watching TV in bed when I entered the house and joined her in the bedroom facing east to watch the lights as they began moving about the sky.

There were now four lights moving around in the cloud, when the fourth appeared to split away from the southerly light of the inverted triangle formation. This then tracked across to the northerly light, taking about four seconds to do so, then back again. As it did so, it passed just above and in front of the easterly apex light which seemed slightly dimmer than the rest.

It is perhaps interesting to note that as the fourth light split from the southerly light, it took on the appearance of what I can only describe as a glowing tadpole – the tail of which swiftly dissipated. At one point three of the lights converged, then split again. They moved about the sky in a silent and random fashion.

Having got my Praktica W14 x 25 binoculars from the master bedroom, I began watching the lights through the now open bedroom window. I trained them on one of the lights and noticed that as it passed through an area of thinner cloud its light intensified, giving me the strongest impression that it was an internally lit, electric-blue light source behind the cloud and not the product of a ground-based light shone onto the face of it.

I had an unrestricted view for miles and could see nothing to suggest a ground-based source for the lights. Without warning the lights suddenly vanished in the blink of an eye. Having undertaken some research (which is still on-going) and giving much thought to the sighting I have come to several conclusions.


laser beamsThe lights could not have been the product of ground-base searchlights or lasers because one of them intensified in magnitude as it passed through the thinner cloud covering. If they were caused by any of the foregoing then surely – there being fewer water droplets to reflect light – it would have diminished in intensity and not the reverse. 


That ball lightning may have been the cause of the phenomenon is also unlikely, due to the 10-15 minute duration of the sighting. Balls of ionised gas or plasma, surrounded by the vertical magnetic field that constrains the link between them, are thought by physicist Antonio Rananda to have a life-span of no more than 10-15 seconds before dissipating.


I quickly ruled out conventional aircraft as the observed lights were completely silent. Furthermore, their manoeuvres were swift and angular. Nor am I aware of any know  aircraft, military or otherwise, which sport, exclusively, blue navigation lights. Moreover, the lights were seen performing manoeuvres within one of the flight corridors of Newcastle International Airport – an extremely dangerous and foolhardy thing for any sane pilot to do.


To date, I have found no evidence to support an astronomical interpretation for the sighting.”

I later contacted the late Graham W Birdsall, editor of UFO Magazine, who informed me that 20 years previously he and several others were conducting a skywatch at Penshaw Monument, Sunderland, which is not that far from where I lived, when they witnessed an object that looked like ‘a flying tadpole’ travelling erratically across the night sky in a southerly direction.

© David Calvert 2011

 Please note that at the bottom of each blog page there is a “Comments” box and a “Like” button, should you feel inclined to use them. Thank you.